Vibranium absorbs Kinetic Energy and becomes stronger. On the other hand, The Hulk's rage makes him stronger.
Which one will win? Can a cage made out of Vibranium contain The Hulk? Has this thing been happened in the comics?
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In my answer to another question about vibranium here (about vibranium boots allowing you to jump from greater heights) there is a quote about how vibranium can absorb kinetic energy. So in that sense it would be a better cage. But the one flaw is that it can only absorb a finite amount. With many of us knowing that the Hulk's strength is incredible (and seemingly unending), given enough time and anger he would eventually be able to force his way through.
Quote from Wiki -
"Vibranium found in Wakanda absorbs soundwaves and other vibrations, including kinetic energy."
Second quote from the Wiki -
"The Wakandan isotope possesses the ability to absorb all vibrations in the vicinity as well as kinetic energy directed at it. The energy absorbed is stored within the bonds between the molecules that make up the substance. As a result, the more energy vibranium absorbs the tougher it becomes. There are limits to the capacity of the energy that can be stored, although the exact limitations are not yet known."
I think enough time and rage would allow the Hulk to break through.
Short answer, no. On several occasions we've actually seen the Hulk damaging or breaking vibranium artifacts.
In Ultimate Avengers II Vibranium was shown to be largely useless against the Hulk because it becomes brittle when exposed to Gamma radiation (which he emits when he becomes especially angry).
In Agents of S.H.I.E.L.D., we see an enormous fist-print in the vibranium-coated walls of The Retreat, a safe-house used to contain potentially violent 'guests'. It follows that if he can dent it, then he can break out eventually.