Albus Dumbledore stated in HP6 about Inferi and Voldemort:

They are corpses, dead bodies that have been bewitched to do a Dark wizard's bidding. Inferi have not been seen for a long time, however, not since Voldemort was last powerful ... He killed enough people to make an army of them, of course."

Why did he add that last sentence? Is that because it's only possible to create an Inferi out of the victim you yourself killed? Or simply easier than from a person dead from other causes? Or merely an off-the-cuff observation about Voldemort having no implication on Inferi?

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    I took the comment about Voldemort killing enough people to make an army of inferi to simply be a means of reinforcing just how many people he killed, rather than anything directly relating to an actual or planned inferi army. – Beofett Jan 10 '12 at 18:38

I think it might be a throwaway.

Grindelwald also seriously considered raising an army of Inferi, and while it's not explicitly stated how many people Grindelwald killed (the only known victim is possibly Arianna Dumbledore), there's nothing in canon to imply that Grindelwald was a darker wizard than Voldemort. As well, their agendas were different -- immortality for Voldemort, taking over of the Muggle world by the Wizarding world for Grindelwald.

Tales of Beedle the Bard says [We] remain incapable of raising the dead, and there is every reason to suppose this will never happen. Vile substitutions have, of course, been attempted by Dark Wizards, who have created Inferi, but these are ghastly puppets, not truly reawoken humans. - TOBTB - Page 164. It indicates that Necromancy is the Dark Art used to conjure the dead, but it is a branch of magic that has never worked. (Page 160)

I can't recall or locate anything in canon that indicates Inferi can only be conjured by the Dark Wizard who initially killed them. And if Necromancy doesn't work, then is there a spell? I suppose that's a separate question.

ETA: I forgot I was going to mention this bit of text:

‘The Lestranges should stand here,’ said Voldemort quietly. ‘But they are entombed in Azkaban. They were faithful. They went to Azkaban rather than renounce me ... when Azkaban is broken open, the Lestranges will be honoured beyond their dreams. The Dementors will join us ... they are our natural allies ... we will recall the banished giants ... I shall have all my devoted servants returned to me, and an army of creatures whom all fear ...’

Goblet of Fire - Page 564 - British Hardcover

The last sentence might imply the Inferi, but I take it neutrally as to your question. It neither confirms nor denies whether or not the wizard must use his/her own murder victims for Inferi. I still err on the side of it being a toss-away comment, given the lack of canon indicating otherwise. :)

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    I agree, probably just a comment on his lethality. – Kevin Jan 10 '12 at 18:33

No, it doesn’t seem like it.

When Professor Snape explains Inferi to the class, he never mentions anything about Inferi needing to be bodies that were killed by the wizard who turned them into Inferi.

“The Inferius is a corpse that has been reanimated by a Dark wizard’s spells. It is not alive, it is merely used like a puppet to do the wizard’s bidding. A ghost, as I trust that you are all aware by now, is the imprint of a departed soul left upon the earth … and of course, as Potter so wisely tells us, transparent.”
- Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Chapter 21 (The Unknowable Room)

The J.K. Rowling writing on Pottermore goes into a bit more detail about how Inferi are created, and again doesn’t mention it being necessary for the Inferi to be people killed by the Dark wizard who wishes to control them.

An Inferius (plural: Inferi) is a corpse that has been reanimated by a Dark wizard’s curse. It becomes a grisly puppet, and may be used as an expendable servant by the Dark wizard in question. The most obvious sign that one is facing an Inferius rather than a living human are the white and cloudy eyes.

The spells used to reanimate a human body are much more complex than those used, for instance, to make inanimate objects fly. The Inferius may be cursed to respond lethally if disturbed, to kill indiscriminately, and to undertake perilous jobs for its master.
Inferi (Pottermore)

It seems likely that Dumbledore’s comment was either about how many people the Dark Lord had killed, or how many Inferi the Dark Lord himself might have (knowing his temperament, Dumbledore may have suspected he’d use the corpses of the people he killed). It doesn’t seem to be in any way implying that’s the only way to create Inferi.

However, the Dark Lord did kill the people for his Inferi himself.

While it doesn’t seem necessary to kill corpses used to make Inferi, the Dark Lord did kill the people he used to make the ones guarding his Horcrux.

The Inferi whom Harry and Dumbledore encounter in the depths of the lake in Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince were, when alive, mostly vagrant, homeless Muggles whom Voldemort had murdered for the purpose during his first rise to power, although some were the earthly remains of wizards or witches who ‘disappeared’ without explanation.
Inferi (Pottermore)

The Dark Lord did kill Muggles specifically for the purpose of creating Inferi.

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    How fitting that a practitioner of the Dark Arts is the one resurrecting all these old HP questions from the dead – DCOPTimDowd Mar 22 '18 at 17:48
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    @DCOPTimDowd Indeed! ;) I’ve begun practicing necromancy, resurrecting old questions and giving them new and perhaps better life! – Mal Mar 22 '18 at 19:21

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