No further mention is made of the numbered "guarantees" enshrined in the Federation Constitution in any Star Trek TV show or film.
The First Guarantee is described in Vanguard: Precipice as the right to a fair trial and to consult with an attorney:
“Lieutenant Jackson,” the Orion said as Captain Desai followed her
inside the interview room, “My name is Denon Veril. I’m Mister Kane’s
attorney.” She set her briefcase on the table. “I need to confer in
private with my client, as per his rights under the First Guarantee of
the Federation Charter.”
Beyond that, there are innumerable mentions of people's legal rights (the right to prevent seizure of property, the right to not be tortured, the right to food while in custody, etc etc) but no specific references to whether these are part of the numbered guarantees
There's also quite a nice version of the Federation Charter in the "Starfleet Technical Manual" but no mention at all of numbered guarantees.