In German not only the names are translated, but also the areas and other names.
Unchanged are all which also sound strange in English:
Gandalf, Sauron, Aragorn, Isildur, Arwen, Boromir, Faramir, Elrond, Gollum &
Smeagol, Galadriel, Saruman, Mordor, Gondor, Rohan, Rhun, Harad, Lorien, Fangorn,
Moria, Barad-Dur, Uruk-hai, Nazgul.
Bilbo and Frodo Beutlin ("Bag" = "Beutel").
Samweis "Sam" Gamdschie
Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybock ("Brandy-bock"(buck)
Peregin "Pippin" Tuk
Gimli, Gloins Sohn (son of Gloin)
Legolas Grünblatt (green leaf)
Grima Schlangenzunge (snake tongue)
Mirkwood = Düsterwald
Weathertop = Wetterspitze
Shire = Auenland ("meadow land")
Misty Mountains = Nebelgebirge
Grey Havens= Graue Anfurten
Sting = Stich
Orcrist = Orkspalter
Glamdring = Feindhammer
Orcs = Orks
Trolls = Trolle
Shelob = Kankra (no idea why)
The problem we have with German is that many creatures have names,
but are quite distinct in mythology and folklore. Elf, Elb and Alb
are all the same names for fairy creatures in German which are
quite unlike Tolkien's elves. Dwarves, well, they are a bit like Tolkien's
counterparts, but they could also use magic in folklore. Given that, the German
translator simply used Bilwiß (a kind of demon) as translation for
As bonus here "the" standard green Klett-Cotta German edition with the
Carroux translation. It is one of the most used and oldest versions,
unfortunately it misses all appendices except Aragorns death.
Addendum: The Hobbit has several translations (mostly because it is thought as
a children's book, e.g. from Wolfgang Krege and Juliane Hehn-Kynast). The version I read
was published in 1974 from dtv junior (it has a dragon with blue butterfly wings...yeah, you read that right), so it is very possible that the translation was a bit mangled.