All of this is consistent with the plot of The Snow Queen and its sequels. But I'm not sure about this identification, because a lot of other things happen in these books, and it feels odd to remember only these parts of the plot.
From what I remember I'd guess this story would have come out mid 70's to mid 90's.
The Snow Queen was published in 1980.
It starts out from the perspective of a young girl, or teenager, who lives on a planet other than earth, not even sure earth is mentioned, and multiple other planets are home to human civilizations.
The planet Tiamat is divided into two nations: Winter, a colder region whose residents embrace contact with higher-tech off-worlders, and Summer, a tropical region which keeps a traditional, close-to-nature lifestyle.
Very importantly, the Summers live in harmony with mers, while the Winters harvest mers' blood to make a longevity drug, which is exported galaxy-wide as no other source of longevity is known.
Moon is a teenage girl from Summer, and she's the main heroine of The Snow Queen.
For some reason, whatever means humans have been able to travel between these far away planets (warp, wormhole, ftl, etc.) is slowly becoming less accessible and soon each planet will be cut off from the others.
The planet Tiamat is periodically cut off from the interstellar travel network. For some time, the planet is connected and Winter is dominant. Then the planet becomes isolated and Summer is dominant. Each of these “seasons” lasts approximately a human generation. The Snow Queen is set at the end of a Winter.
A mission is launched, I'm assuming from the girl's planet, to try to determine why their ability to travel at great speeds is declining. I'm fairly certain the girl goes along on the mission.
This detail doesn't match exactly. Moon is taken off-world, but not specifically to find out about the interstellar travel network. However, something else is under investigation; as far as I recall no link is initially known between this and interstellar travel. This is the sybil phenomenon — some Summers have the power to find out things through a mystical trance. Much of the plot of The Snow Queen and its sequels.
Now I'm not as certain about this part but I believe they run into a ship or station, (something technological) that helps explain what's going on. Any help would be appreciated.
Investigation on technical planets do eventually contribute to revealing what the sybil network is, by the time of the third book, The Summer Queen.