I hate to be a stick in the mud, but the answer is quite unequivocally "it depends". (I'm not even sure "canon" evidence applies here, since you're referring to a plot hole.)
It depends on so many factors that the physiology of the particular xenomorph would need to be known to make a prediction.
Home planet atmospheric pressure
If the creature evolved on a large planet (more gravity, higher atmospheric pressure), it may have evolved a stronger skeleton in order to maintain mobility - or even compensated with a strong exoskeleton instead of or in addition to an internal one - which might lead one to believe that it would withstand a vacuum better (less deformation at 0 atmospheres.) But if the creature has a vascular system (which is common in multicellular organisms), it has evolved under the same conditions as the skeleton: at a higher atmospheric pressure.
Microgravity has the largest effect of the space-flight environment on human physiology; all organ systems are affected to some degree. Acclimation during space flight: effects on human physiology
The problem with vascular systems in space is that the unbound dissolved gas comes out of solution at the sudden lowering of atmospheric pressure - exactly like having "the bends".
For a creature accustomed to a higher atmospheric pressure, the result of being in space would be more dramatic, not less.
If the creature evolved under a lower atmospheric pressure - say, a smaller planet or at a higher elevation than sea level - they would do better. This is why sherpas do better at higher altitudes than their non-sherpa counterparts on the mountains: they've evolved mechanisms to deal with lower atmospheric pressure (and therefor lower oxygen levels). Their blood vessels are more expandable than their non-sherpa counterparts, so there is less cerebral and pulmonary edema as well.
If you put a European from sea level and a sherpa into space, a sherpa would stay conscious marginally longer than the European. (Humans stay conscious - kind of - for 10-12 seconds in a vacuum.)
Since the creature in Alien seemed to thrive in the same conditions as humans, I'd guess their adaptability to a sudden vacuum would be about the same (though tissue swelling seen in humans might not appear because of their partial exoskeleton).
And this is taking only one aspect - dissolved gasses in the vascular system - under consideration. It doesn't take into account gas filled spaces - like lungs or intestines.
It depends on the xenomorph: their home planet size, their vascular systems, their cellular structure, etc. It all matters.
Evolving altitude aptitude
If you don't know about Joe Kittinger, you should; he is a phenomenonal person. He went into space in a pressurized suit in a balloon, before astronauts, to help study the effect of high altitude on pilots who faced emergency ejections. His glove was damaged and he had to duct tape his wrist, which cut off circulation in space. Though his hand swelled, it returned to normal.