Yes, in as much as concentration and physical activity tire a person. Harry is shown to be exhausted on several occasions when practicing the Accio charm, practicing legilimancy with Snape, and attempting to create a patronus with Lupin.
However, these appear to be the "regular" type of tired: the same as a person concentrating on driving or undertaking a difficult piece of homework. The magic itself does not seem to be taking any energy from the wizard, just the long hours of concentration and activity.
It's more akin to me spending 6 hours practicing how to solve a Rubik's cube.
I think your question is really asking whether the Witch/Wizard has to "give" any energy to the spell, in the style of spellcasters in, for example, the Eragon series. I'm not aware of any direct example of this in Harry potter: magic does not seem to be manipulation of energy in the Potter universe. Or at least if it is, the source is not the person casting the spell.