Vault 101 was originally designed never to open its doors to the outside world. The great war took place in 2077, and the events of Fallout 3 took place 200 years later (2277). We do know that Vault 101 has opened its doors a few times, but only to send out small parties of scouts, or to accept James and his child.
At least within the context of the game, the ingredients to make these don't exist in the wasteland. If the ingredients were stored all this time, would their shelf-life be long enough to survive the 200 years? And how much would need to be stored for there to still be a ready supply after 200 years?