Yes, various models such as the E-web, Subaqua, and others as described below, were prone to overheating, for various reasons, and exploding. From the Wookieepedia page for blasters:
A side effect of firing blasters was the gas conversion enabler
heating up as gas was energized by the power pack, which could cause
blasters to overheat, sometimes to the point of destruction..
If blasters are poorly maintained or improperly modified they can overheat/melt/explode.
Either the E-11 (the standard issue sidearm for Stormtroopers) or the E-11b (a modified variant of the E-11) was also known for overheating, but Wookieepedia is confused about which it is.
If they are overused by being set to an overload shot (one maximally powerful burst), as described here:
However, some disruptor pistols were capable of being set to overload,
a setting which greatly increased the pistol’s power for a single
shot. Unfortunately this usually resulted in the firearm being
rendered useless, due to the weapon’s internals suffering damage from
focusing even more energy into what was already an unstable form of
tibanna gas particles.
- If they are overused by being fired on full automatic as described here:
However, setting the weapon to full automatic fire drained the power
pack in less than twenty seconds, and the wielder ran the risk of
overheating the internal components and causing an explosive overload.
- A specific example of this is the death of Granta Omega, who died when his E-web overheated and exploded, severely wounding him before Obi-wan Kenobi finished him off:
Omega manned an E-web against Kenobi. His weapon overheated and
exploded. Omega was thrown against a wall. He made another attempt to
attack Kenobi, but was too weak, and Obi-Wan was forced to kill Omega
with his lightsaber.
N.B.1. I was not able to find any canon examples of a blaster exploding due to enemy fire, but that does not mean that they don’t exist.
N.B.2. I found a non-canon reference to intentionally overloading a blaster and then throwing it away, and thus using it as a grenade, but I am not confident in the source.