Mondasian Cybermen are simply Cybermen from the planet Mondas, a twin planet of Earth where the inhabitants turned themselves into cyborgs in order to survive their planet drifting further and further away from its sun. These are the original Cybermen, and every Old Who episode involving Cybermen was about them or some faction/offshoot of them.
In New Who, ...
Although it's never been explicitly confirmed that Cyberman do not eat, we have never seen them eat anything in Old Who or New Who, and there's significant circumstantial evidence that they do not need to eat.
My circumstantial evidence is as follows:
1) Even in the story about a half-human half-cyberwoman, there was no mention of food.
TANIZAKI: Some ...
From the Fifth Doctor episode Earthshock (emphasis mine):
DOCTOR: They also enhance life! When did you last have the pleasure of smelling a flower, watching a sunset, eating a well-prepared meal?
LEADER: These things are irrelevant.
DOCTOR: For some people, small, beautiful events is what life is all about!
It's arguable, and one ...
No, he killed Lumic, the man behind it all.
We can tell it's him because of the eyes. Here's Lumic in his chair earlier, after his conversion (picture taken from the BBC website):
And here's the Cyberman that tried to follow them up the ladder (pictures taken from this video):
Normal Cybermen have dark eyes, not glowing ones. This is Lumic.
As to "why" they were running the shifts, the answer is in the show. They were trying to create a disruption at a known point of dimensional instability (e.g. where the Void Ship emerged) in order to harness the energy they detected.
DOCTOR: So, you find the breach, probe it, the sphere comes through six hundred feet above London, bam. It leaves a hole in ...
To quote S2E12:
JACKIE: But these Cybermen, what've they got to do with the ghosts?
DOCTOR: Do you never listen? A footprint doesn't look like a boot.
which is referencing this earlier comment:
JACKIE: Yeah, but they're human! You can see them. They look human.
ROSE: She's got a point. I mean, they're all sort of blurred, but
The Cybermen used the phase "resistance is futile" in Tomb of the Cybermen which aired in September 1967. Second Doctor (Patrick Throughton). No doubt it was seen by one of the writer or creators of Star Trek.
From "The Doctor Falls" Script: (emphasis mine)
DOCTOR: You shouldn't have hit me, Missy. I was waiting for my chance. Computer, containing the algorithm defining human life signs. I only had time to change one detail. A single number. One to a two. One heart to two hearts. I expanded the definition of humanity. Took 'em a while to update the net, but ...
This is a very well researched question! If you haven't already read David Banks's "Cybermen", I strongly urge you to seek out a copy; he's put the same kind of effort into analysing the chronology of the Cyber-stories you did.
(And that book really goes into detail about the cyberFaction and their split from the cyberMondasians!)
Now... I think the key to ...
The "original" Cybermen began as the humanoid inhabitants of Earth's sister planet Mondas. In the final 1st Doctor story, The Tenth Planet, we learn that the inhabitants of Mondas became Cybermen by gradually replaced their body parts with mechanical ones. These Cybermen are referred to in the fandom as Mondasian Cybermen.
In the the 10th Doctor episode The ...
Mondas was the original home of the Cybermen, seen in only one story, The Tenth Planet. From the second televised adventure on, the Cybermen seen were from Telos, or other planets colonized by the Cybermen at some point to Mondas' destruction. The Mondasian Cybermen had a far less advanced design than other models of Cybermen, even appearing to still have ...
The amount of human and machine making up a cyberperson seems to vary form story to story. Here is a small exert from wikipedia that I've formatted:
It is presumed (and often implied) that there are still organic components beneath their suits, meaning they are actually cyborgs, not robots:
In The Tenth Planet, a Cyberman tells a group of humans ...
It's because the Mondasian and Cybus Cybermen have merged, as of Season 7 of Doctor Who.
In "Nightmare in Silver", the Cybermen are a three-way fusion, combining Mondasian Cybermen, Cybus Cybermen, and the Borg technology they obtained in Assimilation2.
IMO this has been an art decision, rather than something story related.
The Cybermen from the new series aren't considered to be different to those found in the classic episodes, possibly just more recent versions.
The parallel earth Cybermen (from Cybus) are special in their way, as they just started at that step (plus a different origin for the "C" on ...
On the surface, they are the same. They are cyborgs, they conquer and assimilate the conquered. When separated from the "collective" their organic brains tend to assert themselves.
There is a certain sameness to the cybermen though. When assimilated, its really just a brain driving a cyber body, and most all of the cyber bodies are interchangeable. With ...
As far as I remember, they didn't reach all Cybermen with their signal. Post this episode Mickey, Pete, and the others set out to free the rest of the world.
This becomes an important plot point in a later season (avoiding spoilers).
I feel that the Cybermen did influence the creation of the Borg, at least a little. My evidence for this stems from the 1967 Doctor Who "Tomb of the Cybermen." In episode 3, the newly revived Cybermen use the direct quote "resistance is futile" in reference to them trying to convert the Doctor and his party into Cybermen (i.e. assimilation). Those two linked ...
I consider the audios canon, and David Banks's Cybermen book goes some way to explain the cybermen.
With regard to:
More confusing is that nearly every time the Earth is attacked by Cybermen, it is the first time. We will have to blame that on time travel.
It's easily explained that they are all different factions of surviving Cybermen.
It seems ...