36

This is almost definitely Dragon's Egg by Robert L. Forward; the primitive (very briefly) race are the cheela and they live on the surface of a neutron star. The cheela - who are described as the size of a sesame seed - live approximately a million times faster than humans, with a lifespan (for us) of about 40 minutes. From the human point of view the ...


28

"Student Body" by F. L. Wallace. You can read the Project Gutenberg etext or listen to the X Minus one radio dramatization. I read it in an American, English-language paperback anthology with an extraterrestrial theme, in the very late 80's or early-mid 90's, That could have been the Asimov-Greenberg-Waugh-edited Monsters, published in 1988. but the story ...


24

Chad Oliver's 1959 novelette "Transfusion" (first published in Astounding Science Fiction, June 1959, available at the Internet Archive) was not the first, but it's a very good example of that microgenre. But you asked for the first one. In his book Science-Fiction: The Early Years Everett F. Bleiler reviews virtually every work of science fiction ever ...


23

"Big Ancestor" by F. L. Wallace. You can read it at the Internet Archive. The anthology you read it in could be Galactic Empires edited by Brian Aldiss. • Humans were traveling to other planets trying to decipher their big destiny. "Plus or minus a hundred thousand years, we can still get something that might be the path of a spaceship attempting to ...


18

This is The Mote in God's Eye by Larry Niven and Jerry Pournelle, part of the latter's CoDominium series, and is actually a novel published in 1974. The aliens are called "Moties" because their home star appears to a nearby human colony as a speck in front of a red giant star, called Murcheson's Eye. In the series, FTL travel happens by traveling to a ...


17

That is "Eyes Do More Than See" by Isaac Asimov, originally written for Playboy, but rejected and so published in F&SF in 1965.


17

In the original Frank Herbert books, the Guild Navigators had been mutated over millennia by living and breathing in supersaturated spice gas, seemingly over many generations - in fact, it seemed they subsisted on nothing but the spice gas. The prequel/sequel series by Frank's son Brian (and Kevin J Anderson) introduced the idea that a human could become a ...


16

"The Lysenko Maze", a short story by Donald A. Wollheim (alias "David Grinnell"), originally published in Punch, 30 December 1953. You might have read it in the 1987 Asimov–Greenberg anthology The Great SF Stories #16 (1954). The extracts below are quoted from The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction, July 1954, available at the Internet Archive. The ...


14

Edna Mayne Hull (aka Mrs. A. E. van Vogt), "The Patient". The short story was part of an anthology. The ISFDB bibliography page for that story has a list of anthologies and collections in which it appeared. A cancer clinic near a war zone London, Aug. 23, 1943--Reports reaching this capital state that a universal cancer cure has been perfected at the ...


12

Philip K. Dick, The Infinites. The plot centers around a crew of three on board a spaceship which scouts asteroid fields for new materials which can be mined. Led by Crispin Eller, the crew (which consists of second in command Blake and Silvia) land on an asteroid and send a pack of hamsters in order to check the radiation levels. Upon retrieving the ...


12

In Raymond Z. Gallun's classic novelette "Seeds of the Dusk" (first published in Astounding Science-Fiction, June 1938, available at the Internet Archive), crows have evolved near-human intelligence, but don't have technology. Kaw the crow is one of the main characters in this far-future alien invasion story: Kaw, the Crow, recognized in this thing that ...


12

This is probably Theodore Sturgeon's "Microcosmic God" (1941), where the main character creates a little world and forces the beings inside - called Neoterics - to evolve and solve problems for him. This, then, was the answer to his problem. He couldn't speed up mankind's intellectual advancement enough to have it teach him the things his ...


11

There are several works with the more plausible premise that humans were removed from Earth at some point in our evolutionary history, and then returned later. The earliest of which I'm aware is James P Hogan's Inherit the Stars (1977). Otherwise, there's Larry Niven's Known Space series, where humans are descendants of Pak Protectors. Protector was ...


11

This is probably Poul Anderson's story "Epilogue" which fits all of the details you mention. There's a discussion of the story at http://poulandersonappreciation.blogspot.com/2013/08/epilogue.html and another at https://polaris93.livejournal.com/2745134.html. It was first published in Analog Science Fact -> Science Fiction, March 1962 and has been ...


10

1895 It could very well be H.G. Wells' The Time Machine (1895). In it, the unnamed Time Traveller travels to A.D. 802,701. There, humanity has been split into two distinct species, the frail, beautiful, child-like Eloi and the misshapen, underground Morlocks. The Time Traveller discovers that the Morlocks produce the food and clothes the helpless Eloi ...


9

You might be looking for the book Manifold Space by Stephen Baxter. In it, he describes a two-dimensional life form (similar to a lichen) which exists and evolves on the surface of a neutron star (starting on page 115). It grows, evolves and dies in a repeating fourteen second cycle. The book itself is about the Fermi Paradox which asks the question ...


9

This issue is addressed in the TNG episode 'The Chase' http://en.memory-alpha.org/wiki/The_Chase_(episode) The fundamental premise is: This is further developed in DS9, where several times it is hinted that:


9

Page 169 of Science Fact and Science Fiction: An Encyclopedia, currently viewable on google books here, lists a number of early examples: Early fictional treatments of evolutionist ideas often focused on the relatedness of humans and apes, as in Thomas Love Peacock's depiction of Sir Oran Haut-Ton in Melincourt (1817) and James Fenimore Cooper's ...


9

This is based entirely on Frank Herbert’s Dune and sequels: Guild Navigators have been living in vats full of spice for years (possibly centuries). The spice in large quantities alters physical qualities and life span. This explains their ‘alien’ appearance. Although Fremen interact with the spice they simply do not interact with it in the same capacity. ...


8

Why would Leto's sandworm 'offspring', have characteristics of himself, when in reality, he was merely a parasite in the worms body? If you are looking for an in-universe answer then revisit your assumption that he was "merely a parasite". The books imply a much more complex interaction than the word parasite implies in our current world. The sandworms ...


8

This is Time Trax. In the year 2193, over a hundred criminals become fugitives of law enforcement by traveling back in time two hundred years to a parallel Universe, using a time machine called Trax. Darien Lambert is a police detective of that period who is sent back to 1993 in order to apprehend as many of the fugitives as possible He [Darien Lambert] is ...


7

This is The Battle of Forever by A. E. Van Vogt. At the beginning of the novel all of humanity has been reduced to a few individuals who have evolved to have massive heads and vestigial bodies. So not quite giant brains, but close. It turns out this was encouraged by aliens called the Nunuli (or possibly the Zouvgites - I can't remember which is which) so ...


7

Ark B from The Restaurant at the End of the Universe (1980) probably qualifies. A ship full of the useless members of another planet are shipped off and crash land on Earth, where they eventually usurp the native population.


7

There are several possibilities regarding technology. Necessity In most cases, the species encountered are space faring races and are encountered in space. The technology they use makes life in space possible or at least more bearable. Examples The transporter eases planetary exploration and transfer between vessels. Replicators eliminate the need for ...


7

This is Evolution by Stephen Baxter (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_(Baxter_novel)) Your memory of "current events type stuff" may come from...the extinction of mankind! Blockquote Human extinction (or the extinction of human culture) also occurs in the book, as well as the end of planet Earth and the rebirth of life on another planet. (The ...


7

Star Fire by Ingo Swann. Dan Meriweather is the rock star who has psychic abilities. From the book: It had happened in a country meadow while he was at work on composing a new song. The words resisted for a while, then fell into place. And with their ordering had come the music. He was pleased and sang it, tentatively, to a flower nearby, a small one ...


6

I think this is Theodore Sturgeon's Microcosmic God, which was actually published in 1941. The lifeforms are called "neoterics" and live greatly accelerated lives, leading them to quickly outpace humanity technologically. In the story, the bombs weren't nuclear; there's a scene where Kidder, the scientist who created the neoterics, is running ...


6

You have described the last half of the 1935 novel Odd John by Olaf Stapledon. (The term "homo superior" comes from this book.) Maybe one of these covers will be familiar. The full text is available at Project Gutenberg Australia. The following chapter-by-chapter outline is from the Wikipedia page (emphasis added): John and Author. A physical ...


6

I'm fairly certain you watched an episode of Wayward Pines I cant find the exact scene you describe but see if this looks familiar;


6

"Student Body", a novelette by F. L. Wallace, available at Project Gutenberg, also my answer to the old question Short story about human colonists vs. alien animals that evolve very rapidly. It doesn't start with bacteria, the progression of forms the "omnimals" take is squirrels, mice, rats, tigers, men. And we don't see what comes after men: "Don't you ...


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