Yes, the 'Wailing Widow' and various other ghosts attended the Death-day celebration for Nearly-Headless Nick and traveled from outside the castle.
"Not a bad turnout. The Wailing Widow came all the way up from Kent…
It's nearly time for my speech, I'd better go and warn the orchestra…"
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets
In Chapter Eight of Chamber of Secrets when Nearly Headless Nick invites Harry to his deathday party he says:
Friends will be coming from all over the country.
As these friends are ghosts, there are clearly ghosts all over the country.
This is "I Speak of the Haunted House", which appeared in Tales of Suspense #42, published June, 1963. Story by Stan Lee and art by Steve Ditko.
Two friends make a bet about the existence of ghosts. One bets the other a hundred dollars he will see a ghost if he spends a night at a particular house and the other skeptical one accepts. He enters the house ...
Rebecca's World by Terry Nation.
Here is a review that outlines the plot.
It turns out that a very nasty man, Mister Glister, is the richest man in this world, and as he explains to our heroine most seriously, 'I've made it my life's work to make everyone poor', and he has done it by burning all the trees down in the world to feed his industry and make ...
Ghost Host by Marilyn Singer
Bart Hawkins' house is haunted by a malicious poltergeist and nine
other ghosts. One of them strikes a bargain with him. If he leaves the
nine nice ghosts in peace, she will help him win his championship
There is also a head throwing team that nearly-headless Nick wanted to participate. We don’t see them around Hogwarts after his deathday party so it’s safe to assume they are outside Hogwarts. I will provide the respective section later
This is the 3rd Armada Monster Book.
The story with the dinosaur and the crane is one I remember fondly, it's called The Machine Monster (Daphne Froome). The one with the hot and cold dragons is Prince Prigio and the Firedrake (Andrew Lang).
It shouldn't be possible...
We see in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets that, even when the Basilisk stares straight at Nearly-Headless Nick, he doesn't "die" in the sense that your question is asking.
The basilisk kills people by looking at them... Justin must’ve seen the basilisk through Nearly Headless Nick! Nick got the full blast of it, but he ...
This isn't really killing or destroying them. But Nearly Headless Nick was petrified by the basilisk.
It was Nearly Headless Nick, no longer pearly-white and transparent, but black and smokey, floating immobile and horizontal, six inches off the floor.
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets, Chapter Eleven (The Dueling Club)
He was completely ...
This would be The Damned (AKA Gallows Hill), which does have the same concept as 'Don't Kill It' but preceded it (it's from 2013).
After a family is involved in an accident, they take refuge in a secluded inn where they free a girl locked in a basement without knowing she's an ancient evil spirit.
It's basically a demon-witch that possesses whoever ...
Could this be Ghost Stories from North of England, edited by George White? "The Cats of Keld" involves a writer being harassed by the ghostly feral cats of the prior owner of the cottage, and it looks like they reference the Busby's stoop chair, long alleged to be haunted and/or cursed.
Helena Ravenclaw, also known as the Gray Lady, tells Harry the story of the Bloody Baron at the end of Deathly Hallows:
"Then my mother fell ill — fatally ill. In spite of my perfidy, she was desperate to see me one more time. She sent a man who had long loved me, though I spurned his advances, to find me. She knew that he would not rest until he had done ...
With the additional information, I'm guessing this might be Big Fish's Mishap: an Accidental Haunting.
The Burtons have just moved into a beautiful new home, which just happens to be haunted. Now it's up to you to help them deal with some particularly unfortunate ghosts as you search for Hidden Object through beautifully illustrated rooms. Help the ...
Becoming a ghost is a difficult decision, not everyone is ready to make it.
From Pottermore, emphasis mine:
Muggles cannot come back as ghosts, and the wisest witches and wizards choose not to. It is those with ‘unfinished business’, whether in the form of fear, guilt, regrets or overt attachment to the material world who refuse to move on to the next ...