172

The answer depends on just how pedantic you want to be. Space Travel Vehicles With Some Basis In Scientific Reality As Terdon has already pointed out, the first vessel used to travel through space in a manner vaguely similar to scientific reality was probably the "projectile" (Jules Verne's own name for it) in From the Earth to the Moon. However, as ...


149

Arguably it all started with the Outer Limits episode "The Berrello Shield" from october 1964. According to wikipedia, the grey aliens, also known as "Zeta Reticulans" rose to fame following the alleged abduction of Barney and Betty Hill in New Hampshire in 1961. The couple underwent hypnosis in 1964 to retrieve memories of the abduction and it was from ...


131

I've read The Machine Stops a few times, and I don't think it's quite similar enough to the internet. There, the humans live within a giant machine. But the internet is a network of machines. For something a little closer, I think, I'd go with Murray Leinster's "A Logic Named Joe." from March 1946. You can find it for free from the Baen Free Library. In A ...


119

Okay, I really didn't intend to end up answering my own question, but this really piqued my curiosity so I dug into it. The answer - weirdly - may actually be Spider-Man. There does not seem to be any association between goblins and the colour green before the early 1900's. Searching shows that the early examples are fairy stories, which peaked in the 1920'...


100

H. G. Wells predicted the atom bomb in his 1914 book, The World Set Free. His story not only mentioned nuclear weapons, but showed them in use with a fore-knowledge that seems scarily accurate. (Kind of like how he accurately predicted the Apollo missions to the moon.) He predicted bombs based on radioactive elements that were far more destructive than any ...


99

I would say a good case can be made to answer 'yes' on this. Per Wikipedia, "During the Middle Ages in the Middle East, foundations for the scientific method were laid by Alhazen in his Book of Optics." The site goes on to say, "Medieval science carried on the views of the Hellenist civilization of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, as shown by Alhazen's ...


99

Trolls have turned into stone for a very, very long time One example is the myth about "the seven sisters", which tells the story of how seven trolls in Nordland, Norway, was turned into mountains when the sun rose. The myth was referenced in writing by the poet Peter Dass (1647 - 1707). This peculiar weakness of trolls is again referred to in "Norwegian ...


91

The Sleeper Awakes (1898) by H.G. Wells This H.G. Wells novel was released as a serial in 1898 before being rewritten as a single book in 1910. In either version, a man by the name of Graham takes sleeping pills in 1897 to cure his insomnia but ends up falling into a coma until the year 2100. When he wakes up, he finds that the world is now a dystopian ...


91

It is hard to say for certain, as the search terms to apply for "smurfing" aren't very clear. However: Although there's likely to be many stories for children where a character replaces a word with some nonsensical term, it appears that The Smurfs themselves are indeed the first to do it on a large scale, and as part of a species' main language. I started ...


84

Because it's a bright "star" (it's actually a group of stars, and the 7th brightest in the night sky) and its name is familiar with budding star gazers. It's also enormous and placed in the obvious and well-known constellation of Orion. The star as seen from Earth is actually a triple, quadruple or quintuple star system, with the primary star (Rigel ...


83

Found at vampilore.co.uk (emphasis mine): Emanuel Maris speaks out … "Well, suppose I set the story straight(er), as to my reasons for writing the Heidi poem in the Creation '74 (Jan) program I edited and published for Malin/ Berman's convention. "I always harboured a little bit of attitude against entrants for a Costume Parade Prize who didn't ...


77

A good candidate is the 1913 (Published 1914) novel by H.G. Wells, The World Set Free. Synopsis of the novel: The novel tells the prophetic story of man’s harnessing of the (at that time) newly-discovered power of the atom, and how this power nearly destroys civilization in a catastrophic war. In a sense, however, as we note below, it ended up being a ...


74

Star Trek, Various, 1966 (earliest occurrence) P=NP in the Star Trek universe, but the people there aren't aware of it. Evidence: There is encryption but it is always breakable. P=NP will let you crack everything but one-time pads but the Federation stubbornly continues to use NP-based ciphers. The efficacy of the universal translator. P=NP would make ...


73

In regards to why the zombies feed on brains, there is an official explanation is a quote from Return of the Living Dead’s writer and director, Dan O’Bannon, who suggested that the undead felt the need to feed on the brains of the recently living because it somehow made them feel better by easing their pain. Night of Living Dead (1968, directed by George A. ...


67

The Partisan Leader: A Tale of the Future by "Edward William Sidney", pseudonym of Nathaniel Beverley Tucker; available at the Internet Archive. Published in 1836, set in 1849. A work of alternate history, it is listed in the Internet Speculative Fiction Database and in Everett F. Bleiler's Science-Fiction: The Early Years. Summary from Wikipedia: The ...


65

The Day of The Triffids, 1951. I know it's a lot later than The Sleeper Awakes, but it's also much closer to an end of the world scenario. In fact, now I think about it, it's almost exactly the same plot as 28 Days Later. I just went back and reread the start. The protagonist wasn't is a coma, he was temporarily blinded, and thus wasn't exposed to the ...


64

As recorded in knowyourmeme.com: According to the Comics Should Be Good Archive, the panel originated from the 1965 comic book “World’s Finest #153.” The story is based around an alternate reality in which Batman believes that Superboy and Superman are responsible for the death of his father.


64

Primarily, 'moon' is too general. Luna refers to Earth's moon, not other moons, of other planets. People outside SF&F have no reason to think about any other moons, for the most part, so saying 'The Moon' is distinct, and understood. In a setting where you are talking about other planets and THEIR moons, saying 'The Moon' is meaningless, particularly ...


63

1899: "Moxon's Master", a short story by Ambrose Bierce; first published in the San Francisco Examiner, April 16, 1899; reprinted in the collection Can Such Things Be?, which is available at Project Gutenberg. LibriVox has readings ([1], [2]) and an etext of "Moxon's Master". Wikipedia plot summary: The master, Moxon, who creates a chess-playing ...


62

Looking this up, I found this helpful website which lists and excerpts a variety of accounts of the Minotaur, and has a gallery of classical artwork about it. In the sources there, the Minotaur is not depicted with a particular weapon, double axe or otherwise; some of the images show him trying to brain Theseus with what looks like a rock, and some of the ...


61

Tolkien, by his own account, had traditional images of the norse god Odin in mind when creating Gandalf, as we can see from his letter to Sir Stanley Unwin 7 December 1946 (107 in the collection) [On the subject of a German edition of The Hobbit..] I continue to receive letters from poor Horus Engels about a German translation. He does not seem ...


61

According to the CGI article on Memory Alpha: The very first CGI used was in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, where Lucasfilm Graphics Group, then a subsidiary of Industrial Light & Magic (ILM), was responsible for the "Project Genesis" demonstration sequence effect, the very first fully textured 3D CGI representation shown in the motion picture ...


61

1884: Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions, a novel by Edwin Abbott Abbott writing as "A Square", available at Project Gutenberg. Wikipedia plot summary: The story describes a two-dimensional world occupied by geometric figures, whereof women are simple line-segments, while men are polygons with various numbers of sides. The narrator is a square named ...


60

The earliest such car that I am aware of is from the 1965 issue of Strange Tales that introduced SHIELD and inducted Nick Fury into their ranks. You can see in the images on this page that the wheels turn sideways and function as jet engines.


60

Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy - 6 I think Hitchhikers may take the cake for most FTL drives for ship to ship transport. Also the fastest FTL drive in fiction (since the 'Improbability Drive' sends you everywhere in the universe simultaneously) Bistromathic drive Effectively, the ship takes advantage of the strange rules that only restaurants operate ...


60

No, not really. 1924 - Psycho-ship was the vehicle in Goncharov's book "Psycho-Ship" ("Психо-машина") - part of "Interstellar Traveller" dilogy. It was designed for exploration and moved using psychic energy. 1956 - Passing the torch temporarily (pun intended) to English speaking works, Heinlein's "Time for the Stars" has torchships, explicitly designed for ...


56

Let me give a bit of qualification for my source, which is me. I was born in late 1962, so I'm working with the memories of someone who was 7 when Star Trek ended its run. But I remember the news stories, since we often ate dinner in the den, while watching the evening news on TV. I remember seeing reporters wearing helmets and ducking down in trenches ...


56

It depends on which works you consider to be science fiction. The most obvious candidate would be Mary Shelley, who, as you mentioned, wrote Frankenstein in 1818. She also wrote The Last Man in 1826, which by some accounts has an even stronger claim to being science fiction than Frankenstein does (thanks to Hypnosifl for this). But depending on how narrowly ...


54

One of the earliest examples of something similar, and one often hailed as the earliest mention of many modern concepts, is E. M. Forster's The Machine Stops from 1909. The story envisions a post-apocalyptic world where the surface has been made uninhabitable and people reside in tiny cells inside a huge underground complex overseen by The Machine. The ...


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