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1928: This answer to a related question ("First story to describe humans colonizing another planet?") suggests The Second Swarm by Joseph Schlossel, published in 1928. Scout ships are sent to a number of solar systems with a view to colonisation, but after one set are attacked and the crew killed, an invasion of Sirius is planned. (Obviously this ...


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1887: Man Abroad: A Yarn of Some Other Century, an anonymous novel. Humans from earth invade the planet Venus. The Venusians are human colonists rather than indigenous lifeforms, but the question does not make this distinction. WorldCat summary: A fantastic classic science fiction tale from an anonymous late-19th century author. In a far-flung future, ...


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"A True Story" is a novel written in the second century AD by Lucian of Samosata. In it the heroes travel to the Moon and engage in warfare with the King of the Moon. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_True_Story


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Edison's Conquest of Mars (1898) by Garrett P. Serviss was an unauthorized sequel to H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds. The plot is basically about Earth arming after repelling the Martian invasion, testing their fancy new ray gun (created by the titular Edison) and then embarking on a counter-invasion of Mars. Set after the devastating Martian attack in the ...


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Yes, this exists in European folklore. Katherine Briggs documents many cases of people saying that there used to be fairies, but they died or went away, and that was the end of it. The folklorists who collected these tales noted that these stories were told side by side with tales of a continuing fairy presence. Then, folklore is seldom noted for its ...


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Even earlier is the 1930 Last and First Men by Olaf Stapledon, a novel of vast scope which follows the development of humanity and its successors for hundreds of millions of years into the future. The Fifth Men invade and colonise Venus when Earth becomes uninhabitable. From the Wikipedia article: After clashing with and finally eliminating the Third and ...


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1932: A Conquest of Two Worlds, a novelette by Edmond Hamilton, first published in Wonder Stories, February 1932, available at the Internet Archive, reprinted in Startling Stories, January 1948, also available at the Internet Archive. The two worlds conquered by Earthmen, against bitter resistance by natives who are ruthlessly suppressed, are Mars and ...


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I can certainly push this back to 1962 and H Beam Piper's novel Little Fuzzy (which has many similarities with Avatar). Protagonist Jack Holloway lives a solitary life in a wilderness of planet Zarathustra, itself "owned" by the Chartered Zarathustra Company (under Victor Grego), which installed basic services and colonial outposts initially, and ...


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I doubt it's the first, but I can push the date back to 1972: Ursula K Le Guin's "The Word for World is Forest". Brief summary from Wikipedia In The Word for World is Forest, the second thought experiment is the colonization of a pacifist culture on the planet Athshe by a military-controlled logging team from Earth, known in the novel as "...


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The 1977 Advanced Dungeons and Dragons Monster Manual illustration for orcs shows both pointed ears and tusks, and probably influenced a lot of other artists and game designers. The image is from my copy. For some reason I colored their eyes and tusks red. I was young...


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Found an even earlier candidate than my last answer. On p. 186 of Science Fiction: The Early Years by Everett Bleiler, viewable on google books here, there is a synopsis for an 1854 book by C. I. Defontenay, the original French title is Star ou Psi de Cassiopée, histoire merveilleuse de l'un des mondes de l'espace, translated into English as Star (Psi ...


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I would propose Memoirs of the 20th Century as the earliest future fiction work among modern publications. It is the earliest one listed in Wikipedia for "futures" now past, and also by Randall Munroe (see the XKCD reference by the end of the post). This 1733 epistolary novel takes the form of a series of diplomatic letters written in 1997 and ...


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If technologically-enforced virginity counts (it's not technically sterility, but it's sufficient to prevent having sex in the first place) then you could consider The Spell Sword (1974) by Marion Zimmer Bradley. The Keeper of a laran-matrix Tower (a psychic/magi-technical organization) is bound through the laran matrix to virginity, to the point that the ...


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In Shakespeare's Macbeth (1606), Lady Macbeth calls on evil spirits to "unsex" her, giving her the supernaturally-charged determination to go through with the murder of Duncan: Come, you spirits That tend on mortal thoughts, unsex me here and fill me from the crown to the toe topful Of direst cruelty. Make thick my blood Stop up th'accents and ...


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This may be stretching the definition of "sterilize" a bit, but consider the 1967 novel Lord of Light by Roger Zelazny, which takes place in a world where people can change bodies in an imitation of reincarnation. When the god Brahma is murdered, the goddess Kali is chosen to be promoted as the new Brahma; this requires her to switch from her ...


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Interview with the Vampire is a book from 1976. It starts a series called The Vampire Chronicles, in which "vampirization" causes all of a person's bodily processes to cease: Upon their transformation, the newly born vampire will forever lose all natural bodily fluids (with the exception of blood) and their bodily functions will forever cease. It ...


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I'm sure there has to be an earlier example, but in Terry Pratchett's 1981 novel, Strata, the treatment for immortality also removes your ability to have children. The 1988 novel Cyteen has a similar effect from their rejuvenation treatment. In between the two years, published in 1985, fantastic novel With a Tangled Skein by Piers Anthony has the female ...


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An early story in which a particular individual's personality is reproduced in a machine (described as an 'artificial brain') is "The Infinite Brain" by John Scott Campbell, written under the name John C. Campbell (not to be confused with the more famous science fiction writer and editor John W. Campbell), published in the May 1930 issue of Science ...


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1951: "Izzard and the Membrane", a novella by Walter M. Miller, Jr., first published in Astounding Science Fiction, May 1951, available at the Internet Archive. The setting is World War III. The hero is an American cyberneticist who is captured and brainwashed by the Soviets and builds them a supercomputer that he calls Izzard or Izzy: The Izzard ...


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In the Frederik Pohl story "The Tunnel under the World" the population of a village destroyed in an accident is recreated as minuscule robots which, as far as the state of their minds is concerned, seem identical to the original people (to the point where they themselves are not aware of the transition). This is from 1955. As a possible prior ...


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The Annals of the Heechee by Frederik Pohl from 1987 involves a character whose "being" is transferred to a computer system that is interconected much like the internet. At the end of the series of books, it turns out that humans moving to computers saves everyone from what the series termed "The Foe" - energy based beings trying to ...


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Any advance on 1752: Voltaire's Micromégas? It might even count as the first science fiction story, period. Micromégas is a child only 450 years old from a planet that orbits Sirius, when he writes a heretical book about the insects on his planet, for which he is banished. He travels the universe to develop his intellect. He meets the secretary of the ...


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In terms of characters who are "superintelligent" for science fictional reasons rather than simply being exceptionally intelligent human beings, one early one is the 1879 story "The Ablest Man in the World" by Edward Page Mitchell, featuring a cyborg character who had a kind of clockwork computer, said in the story to be similar (but ...


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I'm tempted to include Jules Verne's stories here. 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea was first published in 1870. It is rather steampunk , which I consider a subgenre of sci-fi - though I believe the terms steampunk and science fiction did not exist back then. The story features Pierre Aronnax and Captain Nemo, two huge nerds - the kind that would probably have ...


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Despite the possible identification of The War of the Worlds (1898), I'm going to suggest a slightly later work because I'm not sure that The War of the Worlds satisfies the character requirement. The SF Encyclopedia entry on "Intelligence" notes: the first of real importance was The Hampdenshire Wonder (1911; exp vt The Wonder 1917) by J D ...


4

This may be a bit of a stretch, but 1843's 'A Christmas Carol' by Charles Dickens involves a ghost from the future transporting the main character forward in time to observe the outcome of his decisions, then returns him to present for the explicit purpose of improving his social and emotional progress (and as a result, the betterment of the society around ...


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@RossPresser mentioned Samuel Delaney's "Babel-17" (1966) already, but only to note that the real-life languages ALGOL and FORTRAN appear in the text. Somehow he missed mentioning that Babel-17 is itself the name of a fictional language. It is initially presented in the story as being a natural language that the protagonist must learn, but in a ...


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You may want to consider Philip Nowlan's books Armageddon 2419 A.D. and The Air Lords of Han. It is the Buck Rogers story where he travels forward in time to help after an apocalypse.


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How about Prometheus, a Celestial being who came to Earth and transformed humanity by introducing fire? Stories of Prometheus in written form are known from 2800 years ago, and there must be older undocumented versions. The best known is the trilogy by Aeschylus, of which only "Prometheus Bound" survives (date uncertain bur prior to 430 BCE).


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I'm going to add this as an answer, following on from my comment earlier. I'll go with Lord of the Rings - Part 1 The Fellowship of the Ring, originally published in in July 1954. The particular part that relates to OP's question is chapter called "Into the Dark". In this chapter, Gandalf has reluctantly assented to guiding his companions in the ...


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I think a good first upper bound would be 1889: Mark Twain's A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. It doesn't work in the end, but as noted in the Wikipedia entry Hank, who had an image of that time that had been colored over the years by romantic myths, takes on the task of analyzing the problems and sharing his knowledge from 1300 years in the ...


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In The Caves of Steel (1953) by Isaac Asimov, many people on Earth hate robots, fearing that they will take their jobs. There is a faction of "Medievalists" who want to get rid of them. In contrast are the Spacers, who are from the colonies founded when Earth was still founding them. They want Earth to accept robots, and think people will be more ...


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This is for consideration since I don't think it fully matches OP's criteria. In "The Lost Worlds of 2001" (1972) one of the draft scripts describes one of the astronauts spending some hours modifying and testing the ship's computer's program to allow him to take one of the pods out, despite none of the others being conscious. The programming ...


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