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3

1940: "The Dwindling Sphere", a short story by Willard Hawkins, first published in Astounding Science-Fiction, March 1940, available at the Internet Archive. The double planet is the Earth-Moon system, not because the Moon has gotten farther away (as suggested in Mike Scott's answer), but because the Earth has gotten smaller: On one occasion it was the ...


8

It originated with the Thieves' World series, although it was not a key part of the setting at the very earliest stages. The term does not appear in the original Thieves' World anthology and appears only once in the second volume, Tales From the Vulgar Unicorn, in the story "Vashanka's Minion," by Janet Morris. In Sanctuary, enchantment ruled. No ...


1

This seems to be a traditional feature of European werewolf lore. The inability of evil shapechangers (such as werewolves of sometimes witches) to match all features of the creatures they shifted to resemble is pretty common in folklore. For example, in some Swedish stories, diabolical shapechangers could not grow a tail, even when they assumed animal ...


6

It seems most likely that Timely Comics was sincere in wanting to promote patriotism and anti-fascism among American youth. There are several things that point this this. There is the known attitude of the individuals involved. Jack Kirby, who would have had to draw the advertisements, was a fervent anti-Nazi even before American involvement in the war, ...


4

You will have to decide if the "telelyt guns" from Kurd Laßwitz' "On Two Planets" (1898) qualify. They are handheld, and they fire energy, not as lightning or flashes of light. However the description of how they work is somewhat different from your run-of-the-mill ray gun. Der Telelyt ist ein Apparat, durch welchen chemische Wirkung in jeder beliebigen ...


7

Foo creatures (which typically have both canid and felid features) carrying protective swords are recurring motif in some parts of Taiwan. This blog post catalogs a number of foo guardians with swords at the ready that are visible out the outsides of buildings in the Taiwanese city of Tainan. Although these images are only decades old, according that blog ...


-1

Probably the oldest imagery of an animal carrying a sword in its mouth to fight with comes from, interestingly enough, The New Testament—specifically Revelations—or interpretations thereof. One common feature of Christian iconography is association of Jesus with lambs. He is portrayed as a shepherd, ministering to his "flock" of disciples and followers; ...


2

This was probably We by Yevgeny Zamyatin. Zamyatin, an Old Bolshevik, wrote the novel in 1921 in post-revolutionary Russia (before it was even known as the "Soviet Union"), in part as an expression of his dissatisfaction with how the revolution was proceeding, especially the advancing authoritarianism. The novel-length prose poem tells of a dystopian ...


0

Gene Wolf's 'The fifth head of Cerberus' from 1972. From Wikipedia:- Two colony worlds, 20 light-years from Earth, the double planets of Sainte Anne and Sainte Croix, originally settled by French-speaking colonists, but lost by them in a war with an unnamed enemy.


1

This is a bit of a cheat because barycenter is a difficult word to apply to Pythagorean cosmologies. It may also be unfair to class Pythagorean cosmologies as science fiction. In the 5th c. BC, Philolaus' model of the Universe had an Earth and a counter-Earth, Antichthon, both revolving around an unseen "Central fire". The "barycenter" of this arrangement ...


1

First Cycle, a posthumous work by H. Beam Piper that was completed by Michael Kurland, appeared in 1982. In this novel, the two worlds are roughly equal in size, but one accumulated most of the water during planetary formation and is covered by ocean with a few islands and a small continent, while the other is mostly desert with a few oases and favored areas....


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........................................................................................... Added July 5, 2019: A story set on the two worlds of a double planet in another solar system (with no Human characters), somewhat earlier than other examples in other answers. "Get Out of My Sky" by James Blish, Astounding Science Fiction, January, February 1957. ...


5

There’s the Land & Overland series by Bob Shaw, set on double planets so close together that they share an atmosphere. The first volume is The Ragged Astronauts (1986). There's also anything set on Earth in the very far future, even though it's unlikely to mention Earth's status as one of a double planet pair explicitly. The Moon is slowly receding from ...


9

How about "Rocheworld" by Robert Forward? (It was also published as "The Flight of the Dragonfly.") It came out in serial form in 1982, and as a book in 1984. It is about the exploration of a double planet system. The system orbits Barnard's star. The two planets are "Roche" and "Eau" (rock and water, respectively.) Roche is a big, dry rock. Eau is a ...


1

I would also consider The War of the Worlds, another H. G. Wells book published in 1898. From Wikipedia: The novel has been variously interpreted as a commentary on evolutionary theory, British imperialism, and generally Victorian superstitions, fears, and prejudices. Wells said that the plot arose from a discussion with his brother Frank about the ...


10

1895 It could very well be H.G. Wells' The Time Machine (1895). In it, the unnamed Time Traveller travels to A.D. 802,701. There, humanity has been split into two distinct species, the frail, beautiful, child-like Eloi and the misshapen, underground Morlocks. The Time Traveller discovers that the Morlocks produce the food and clothes the helpless Eloi ...


11

On the (Warning: TVTropes link) Gamebooks page, the Originators section lists TutorText as "the first known gamebook." The first of these was originally published in 1958. Unfortunately they are all educational, so not on-topic. The next point lists 3 "popularizers" of gamebooks, none of whom published any books earlier than 1958. The Choose Your Own ...


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"Alien Territory" (1969) by John Sladek. There are earlier gamebooks that I can find with the earliest being Consider the Consequences! (1930) by Doris Webster and Mary Alden Hopkins and Treasure Hunt (1945) by Alan George but this is the first sci-fi gamebook I could find. It is described as: a story composed of 36 paragraphs arranged in a grid and ...


8

As best I can tell, it was likely Journey Under the Sea, published under the "Adventures of You" imprint in 1977, and later re-released as a CYOA book. It involves a then-futuristic submarine. There are prior gamebooks, but they're rooted in reality.


8

Although Vancian magic was the basis of much of the original Dungeons & Dragons magic system, I do not recall any instances of single-use scroll's in Vance's Dying Earth stories.* However, there is a much older likely inspiration for the existence single-use spells in written form: the master-runes from The King of Elfland's Daughter, by Lord Dunsany. ...


99

Trolls have turned into stone for a very, very long time One example is the myth about "the seven sisters", which tells the story of how seven trolls in Nordland, Norway, was turned into mountains when the sun rose. The myth was referenced in writing by the poet Peter Dass (1647 - 1707). This peculiar weakness of trolls is again referred to in "Norwegian ...


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