Though not exactly what you're looking for, Riker's lack of Rubber Prosthesis Head is remarked upon when he is outed as a Human in the TNG episode "First Contact":
BEREL: You're in no condition to leave yet. There are several unusual
things about your case, Mister Jakara. Your cranial lobes, for
instance, they seem to be surgical implants.
RIKER: I ...
First of all, as is often the case, Wikia is WRONG, when it says "Force-sensitive humanoid alien". This is clear when you dig into the article, where they explain why it's worded thusly: "Snoke was a humanoid alien who was leader of the Attendants, a retinue composed of mute alien navigators who originated from the Unknown Regions".
The actual canon ...
Because Data's purpose was to be more than the sum of his programming
The Memory Alpha page on Data contains a few useful pieces of information:
"I chose to believe that I was a person, that I had the potential to
become more than a collection of circuits and sub-processors." – Data,
2369 ("Rightful Heir")
Data asserted that he did not only ...
I'm not so sure most aliens would view humans as "plain". Remember that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. To a ferengi, large ears, mis-aligned teeth, and large forehead bumps are plain. Their society evolved viewing that as what is standard or plain. So to come across a hairy ape with small ears would be quite a shock at first, and would certainly not ...
I think this is A Tale of the Ending. It was published in the anthology One Step From Earth and Analog Science Fiction/Science Fact in 1970. Some of the story can be read on Google Books in a later edition of One Step From Earth.
Here’s a summary:
There’s an old Harry Harrison short story, “A Tale of the Ending,” in which the characters come to realize that,...
The canon answer is no.
Per the (fully Disney canon) Star Wars Made Easy factbook, the "humans" we see in the Star Wars universe are definitively not biologically related to humans from Earth.
ARE THE HUMANS THERE "US"?
You mean, did they come from Earth and have our history? No, they're
in a galaxy far, far away—I thought we covered this! These ...
Grain of Truth by Charles Spano Jr. First published in Analog though I read it in the anthology A Spadeful of Spacetime.
The Santas are referred to as borealipithicene. The story is written as a series of letters from the scientist Josh to his sister Virginia. It starts after the discovery of a skull with some preserved flesh that can be used as a source ...
Possibly the 1970 film Skullduggery, based on a novel by "Vercors" variously titled but in English generally called You Shall Know Them. I haven't seen the movie nor read the novel, but from my memory of having read reviews of both in the past it sounds like a possibility. Someone who has seen the movie can perhaps elaborate.
On an expedition in ...
What you are describing appears to be Transit by Edmund Cooper (1964).
A synopsis from goodreads.com:
Plot: Richard Avery is on auto-pilot after his one true love dies
young of cancer. He gets whisked off by a mysterious someone, and
plopped on a planet with three other people. We get, that start a
'Robinson Crusoe in space', but it turns out that ...
I don't know if you're still looking for the answer to this question, but I believe the short story you're looking for is "The Real Thing" by Alison Goodman. The story focuses on the slightly genetically enhanced Joss Aaronson and her psychically-bonded alien partner Mavkel. It was included in the short story anthology Firebirds Rising, edited by Sharyn ...
I'm almost certain that this is Origin by Stephen Baxter.
The planet to which the modern humans were transported was a red moon, which had replaced Earth's original moon.
The slavers were referred to as "zealots" and they appeared to be modern humans, but it is later revealed that they still have tails.
The less advanced hominids were referred to as "hams"...
This might be "Humanoids from the Deep"
Scientific experiments backfire and produce horrific mutations: half man, half fish, which terrorize a small fishing village by killing the men and raping the women.
Could this be Wavelength from 1983?
Two young lovers learn that a small group of child-like space aliens
are marooned on Earth and are being held prisoner at a top secret
military facility. The couple then decide to liberate the
extraterrestrial castaways and help them make a rendezvous with a
rescue ship sent from the alien home planet.
I'm going to guess at Evolution (2004) by Stephen Baxter.
Stretching from the distant past into the remote future, from primordial Earth to the stars, Evolution is a soaring symphony of struggle, extinction, and survival; a dazzling epic that combines a dozen scientific disciplines and a cast of unforgettable characters to convey the grand drama ...
As confirmed by the OP in a comment, this refers to "The People" stories by Zenna Henderson.
... her series concerning the history of "The People", humanoid beings
from a faraway planet who are forced to emigrate to Earth when their
home world is destroyed by a natural disaster. Scattered mostly
throughout the American Southwest during their landing ...
In Star Trek: Generations, Lursa and Betor Duras make several remarks on the smoothness of human's features. The subject in question was, I believe, dr. Crusher, and her face was described as 'weak and ugly'.
I can't be sure, but the evidence indicates that they are really human.
Pablo Hidalgo is in charge of maintaining the coherence of canon in Star Wars following the Disney acquisition. According to him, speaking of Depa Billaba:
Chalactan is a culture and heritage. She is biologically human.
We should assume that Pablo Hidalgo means "human" in its usual ...
Sounds like Starliner from David Drake.
The four armed (but six dugged) aliens are just a side story. The main story is about a star voyage just as war is breaking out between two of the planets it will land on during the trip.
The ship is on a circular route between Earth and several of the larger colonies and independent worlds. Its sister ship/...
This sounds a lot like the Riverworld stories by Phillip José Farmer. Not conclusively so, but the resurrections from different eras is a strong link. As the Wikipedia article shows, Farmer set several novels and short stories there.
In "Enterprise" humans are often referred to as "pink skins" by the Andorians. It's often used with a derogatory tone.
In later episodes the phrase is used as a form of endearment after many successful encounters with the Andorians. It's how they perceived Humans, generally, as being different (and more to the point that our most prominent feature to at ...