103

"Influential"? No, probably not. He seems to have been a competent teacher (though apparently he was a terrible mumbler who was frequently hard to understand) and a competent scholar. Note: I'm not saying he was mediocre: You don't get a named professorship at Oxford by being ordinary! People who should know have said that his essay "The Monsters and the ...


97

TL;DR: Yes. In fact, it wasn't just written for children in general - it was written for Tolkien's own children. Tolkien's own words: The generally different tone and style of The Hobbit is due, in point of genesis, to it being taken by me as a matter from the great cycle susceptible of treatment as a ‘fairy-story’, for children. - The Letters of JRR ...


91

It's mentioned in his authorised biography that Tolkien had a personal liking of mushrooms, stretching as far back as his idyllic childhood days in Hall Green, Birmingham, the very same memories that supposedly inspired his writings about the Shire. According to his younger brother Hilary Tolkien, his recollection is that a particularly loathsome farmer (...


89

The full origin is revealed in the prologue to Fellowship of the Ring, where Tolkien discusses the Red Book of Westmarch. The Red Book is actually a collection of other works, containing all of the material for The Silmarillion (through Bilbo's Translations From the Elvish) The Hobbit, which is Bilbo's account of the adventure The Lord of the Rings The ...


82

Beren and Lúthien Beren and Lúthien's story, from the Silmarillion, was based on Tolkien's wife Edith dancing for him in the woods near the military hospital where he was recovering after he was invalided out of WWI. She was Lúthien, he was Beren. The Tale of Beren and Lúthien was regarded as the central part of his legendarium by Tolkien. The story and ...


72

It seems that in germanic languages, notably German, the sun/moon genders are "reversed" like that, as sumelic commented. Die Sonne (sun, female) Der Mond (moon, male) In other words, your assumption that male sun / female moon is somehow "general rule" doesn't hold up. And you don't even need to look at some exotic place.


71

TL;DR Tolkien himself did NOT consider it a trilogy. It shouldn't even be called 3 books, since Tolkien didn't refer to them as books, but as volumes, and any time he used the word he air-quoted it as 'books'. Wikipedia gives us a good start: Tolkien regarded it as a single work and divided it into a prologue, six books, and five appendices. Because of ...


66

On the contrary, both Gandalf's return and his "promotion" came before the notion of his death and resurrection. Tolkien's first draft of Fellowship of the Ring ended at Balin's tomb, at which point he stopped for a long while before continuing. However, a sketch of the plot of the chapter (dated by Christopher Tolkien to late 1939, and written ...


66

Tolkien felt that Bombadil represented an important concept in the story, but that he was essentially useless in defeating evil as represented by Sauron. Here you have it from the horse's mouth. I'm not sure if this is sufficient to address your issue, but it's the only mention of pacifism in a Bombadil context in Tolkien's Letters. Tom Bombadil is not ...


63

Although these books do seem to fall somewhere in the crack between outright infringement and fair usage David Day seems to be relying on a number of legal figleaves to protect himself: The books always prominently marked as being written by David Day rather than by J. R. R. Tolkien The books contain a disclaimer on the first page that these books are not ...


60

Tolkien (in his letter 110 to his Publisher) seems happy to admit that although several of the "Riddles in the Dark" were traditional (and were therefore adapted by him rather than being fully original works of fiction), all of the others were his own work and that none of them required any additional attribution since the authors were historical/ unknown: ...


58

From Arika Okrent's In the Land of Invented Languages, page 284, talking about Tolkien and what made him different: Plenty of other authors throughout history have provided fictional languages for their imagined lands. The citizens in Sir Thomas More's Utopia (1516) have a Utopian language that looks very much like Latin. The inhabitants of the moon in ...


57

Ardalambion, a fansite dedicated to analyzing Tolkien's invented languages, has asked this very question; according to him the answer is somewhere between 2 and 20, depending on how permissive you are when defining a language (emphasis his): If we consider the "historical" versions of the tongues that are relevant for the classical form of the Arda mythos,...


56

Tolkien probably disagreed with pure pacifism Judging the views of an author from their work is always a risky proposition. That said, I think this passage captures something of Tolkien’s views on war: I am in too great doubt to rule. To prepare or to let be? To prepare for war, which is yet only guessed: train craftsmen and tillers in the midst of peace ...


54

Thranduil is, indeed, a name invented by J. R. R. Tolkien himself. There was also a strange Elf clad in green and brown, Legolas, a messenger from his father, Thranduil, the King of the Elves of Northern Mirkwood. And seated a little apart was a tall man with a fair and noble face, dark-haired and grey-eyed, proud and stern of glance. The ...


48

Transcribed by hand "That's that!" said Sam. What we I expected. And I don't like it. I suppose now we are just exactly where he wanted to bring us. Well, let's get moving away as quick as we can. The treacherous worm! That loud whistle of his wasn't pure joy at getting out of the tunnel, it was pure wickedness of some sort. And what sort we'll soon know. ...


45

Treebeard's voice was based on that of Tolkien's good friend C.S. Lewis. From Humphrey Carpenter's J.R.R. Tolkien: A Biography, p. 258: When work was resumed, Tolkien drew up outlines for the end of the story - which he did not imagine was more than a few chapters away - and began to sketch the episode where two of the hobbits encounter Treebeard, the being ...


42

I can't find any thing in Letters or HoMe about Pippin dying at that time. As best I can tell, Tolkien may have very briefly considered killing one Hobbit and then quickly dismissed the idea. I did, however, find this in Letters: [Of C. S. Lewis's comments on The Lord of the Rings:] ‘When he would say, “You can do better than that. Better, Tolkien, please!” ...


42

Tolkien wrote an essay on this subject in 1960, called "Dangweth Pengolod." The essay is rather long, so I'm not going to quote the whole thing, but the highlight for me is this passage: [T]o the changefulness of Ea, to weariness of the unchanged, to the renewing of the union: to these three, which are one, the Eldar also are subject in their degree. In ...


41

According to Wikipedia, Edgar Rice Burroughs' A Princess of Mars "was possibly the first fiction of [the 20th] century to feature a constructed language" and preceded Tolkien. Tolkien was far from the first to write with any invented words. Part of the problem is that a work with constructed language is either successful or forgotten, with newspeak from ...


39

Gerontius "The Old" Took, whose longevity (his sole defining character trait, given that he never appears in the book) was based on Tolkien's grandfathers: [The Old Took] has part of his origin in the fact that both my grandfathers were longeval. My father's father was in his eleventh year when Waterloo was fought; my mother's father, a much younger man, ...


38

The page in question is from Tolkien's first draft of what would eventually become Book IV Chapter 8 of The Two Towers, which Christopher Tolkien dates to May-ish of 1944. The original page, according to HoME, is in Oxford's Bodelian Library. Christopher Tolkien transcribed this page in History of Middle-earth VIII: The verso of the page, numbered '[7]', ...


35

Tolkien says in the very introduction to LoTR that he has no "message", and that he hates allegory: As for any inner meaning or 'message', it has in the intention of the author none. It is neither allegorical nor topical. ... But I cordially dislike allegory in all its manifestations... I think that many confuse "applicability" with "allegory"; but ...


33

I think the question reflects a misunderstanding of Tolkien's writing process. Most people tend to think of The Lord of the Rings as three separate, distinct books in a series. However, this is not how they were created. Tolkien had been working on the story for many years before it was finally published, and the only system by which they were separated ...


31

I find it revealing to look at Letter 153, one of the few pieces of Tolkien's writing on Bombadil that you haven't quoted (emphasis mine): I don't think Tom needs philosophizing about, and is not improved by it. But many have found him an odd or indeed discordant ingredient. In historical fact I put him in because I had already 'invented' him independently (...


30

It's hard to imagine improving on @user366's out-of-universe answer. Here's an in-universe argument, which seems blindingly obvious to me. One problem is the premise that there is one single character who functions in the story as the 'chief hero.' There's no rule of literature that guarantees us this state of affairs. One could make an argument for ...


30

Tolkien famously hated allegory. In fact the draft Letter 181 begins: Thank you for your letter. I hope that you have enjoyed The Lord of the Rings? Enjoyed is the key-word. For it was written to amuse (in the highest sense): to be readable. There is no 'allegory', moral, political, or contemporary in the work at all. The Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien 181: To ...


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