This is probably Isaac Asimov's "Spell My Name with an "S"".
The story concerns Marshall Zebatinsky, a Polish-American nuclear physicist. He is concerned that his career has stalled, and in desperation consults a numerologist for advice on restarting it. The numerologist advises him to change the first letter of his name to "S":...
You are, in fact, thinking of Friday, by Robert A. Heinlein. Plot summary, from Wikipedia:
The book's narrator is Friday Jones (often going under cover name Marjorie Baldwin and using both surnames somewhat interchangeably). Friday is genetically engineered human (known as an Artificial Person or AP) in many ways mentally and physically superior to ordinary ...
This sounds like Cherry 2000 (1987), which in spite of the title takes place in 2017.
In the year 2017, the United States has fragmented into post-apocalyptic wastelands and limited civilized areas. One of the effects of the economic crisis is a decline in manufacturing, and heavy emphasis on recycling aging 20th-century mechanical ...
"Billenium" by J. G. Ballard (ISFDB), published first in New Worlds Science Fiction (#112 November 1961):
The story is set in the future ... where the world is becoming increasingly overpopulated, with a population of around 20 billion .... In the city inhabited by the two protagonists, John Ward and Henry Rossiter, there is a mass shortage of ...
Using the web page What is my Movie? and using the keywords animation+movie+insect+brains I scrolled down and look at something that could resemble that movie.
This is Time Masters (1982).
This is the trailer:
This is The Stuff (1985)
Several railroad workers discover a yogurt-like white substance bubbling out of the ground. These workers find it to be sweet and addictive. Later, the substance, marketed as "The Stuff," is being sold to the general public in containers like ice cream. It is marketed as having no calories and as being sweet, creamy, and filling. ...
Harry Harrison’s Deathworld trilogy.
It features deadly plants and "forearm mounted automatic holsters".
The planet was called Pyrrus...a strange place where all the beasts, plants and natural elements were designed for one specific purpose: to destroy man.
The settlers there were supermen...twice as strong as ordinary men and with milli-second ...
You're describing The People (1972) starring William Shatner and Kim Darby.
It was based on Zenna Henderson's "Pottage", one of the stories found in her anthology "The Pilgrimage"
Aliens have crash-landed on the Earth.
They live in remote parts of the world.
Their offspring have ESP and levitating powers and are taught to ...
With appropriate credit to @Merc Measley for suggesting Starship Troopers first...
Reading the OP's description of the cover (mostly yellow, man with laser gun, flying bugs), I immediately thought of the cover below. This is the edition I have - it's currently in a box in the garage.
It differs from the OP's description in a couple of ways: helmet is not ...
"Dusty Zebra" by Clifford D. Simak. First published in Galaxy Science Fiction, September 1954, which is available at the Internet Archive; reprinted a number of times. Any of these covers look familiar?
t's a story about a device that someone found that removes dust and dirt from wherever it's placed.
He got it by trading stuff with someone in another ...
Mugwump 4 by Robert Silverberg.
The story starts:
Al Miller was only trying to phone the Friendly Finance Corporation to ask about an extension on his loan. It was a Murray Hill number, and he had dialed as far as MU-4 when the receiver clicked queerly and a voice said, "Come in, Operator Nine. Operator Nine, do you read me?"
Al frowned. "I didn’t ...
It might be Forging the Darksword, the first book of the Darksword Trilogy by Margaret Weis and Tracy Hickman.
In that world, magic is called "Life." The main character, Joram, is a baby born "Dead," meaning he has no magic. As a kid he gets in trouble for "giving Life to that which is Dead" (moving a rock with a lever). Google ...
This looks like Triplet by Timothy Zahn.
As described, there are three worlds (versions of the planet), ours, another level centered around hexes (the theory, towards the end, was that 6 was important only in that it wasn't 5 - demon avoidance) and the demon world.
People could travel between worlds, but no material items which prevented tech transfer from ...
This sounds like Wizards.
On a post-apocalyptic Earth, a wizard and his faire folk comrades fight an evil wizard who's using technology in his bid for conquest.
It has some pretty funny moments.
Sidenote: This was the first cartoon I ever saw which had profanity in it. At the time I thought it was illegal for cartoons to use profanity, and wondered ...
Sounds like The Tripods Trilogy. Young adult novels by John Christopher beginning in 1967.
Specific items from the synopsis that stood out and correlated with items in the question.
Tripod city, which is located in a sealed, pressurized dome
the Master reveals an upcoming operation in which the Earth's atmosphere is to be replaced by the Masters' toxic ...
You are right, it is an Asimov story called "Someday".
The computer is called the Bard and the kids dislike it because it's not as fancy as the sweet new Visual Bard.
It ends with the Bard saying "and the little computer knew then that computers would always grow wiser and more powerful until someday...."
Maybe Parallax, which aired in Australia in 2004.
It involves characters going through a portal to jump to various parallel universes. Wikipedia mentions a "hippie world", a "techno world", a "forest world", and others.
I can't find anything about a lobster alien, but there is a weird alien shown in the intro at about 11 seconds in.
"Name of the Snake" by R. A. Lafferty (ISFDB, Wikipedia, Great Science Fiction & Fantasy Works), first published in Worlds of Tomorrow, April 1964, available at the Internet Archive.
A Christian missionary travels to a planet populated by humans (or human-looking aliens) to spread the good word.
The encyclical was titled modestly "Euntes Ergo Docete ...
It sounds like the movie adaption of Dean Koontz's novel Phantoms which has a trailer showing a guy in protective gear resembling a space suit being grabbed by tentacles coming up out of a drain.
Really entertaining in a SCIFI/Horror genre. The book would leave your mind churning as well.
This sounds like the 1992 novel A Call to Arms by Alan Dean Foster. It is the first of a trilogy called "The Damned.
If so, may be a duplicate of:
Looking for a Sci-fi book series
From your description points that match:
about 20 years ago:
A united group of different aliens visit Earth. They meet a composer on his boat off the coast ...
This sounds very much as though it could be The Zero Stone by Andre Norton (which also has a sequel - "Uncharted Stars"), first published in 1968.
The young man's name is Murdoc Jern and he has an alien companion, kind of like a cat, called Eet.
One of the most familiar covers (at least to me) is:
There's a reasonably complete write-up by Judith Tarr on the ...
This sounds a bit like the Commonwealth Saga by Peter F. Hamilton which are two books where the main threat to humans is a colony organism that behaves much like your description. There are significant portions of the books which are written from the colony organism's point of view, which has evolved to eradicate all other life and even other rival colonies ...
This would be The Kraken Wakes (1953) by John Wyndham.
Quoting from part of the plot summary on Wikipedia:
The novel describes escalating phases of what appears to be an invasion of Earth by aliens
In the first phase, objects from outer space land in the oceans. Mike and Phyllis happen to see five of the "fireballs" falling into the sea...
Asimov's "All the Troubles of the World"
The closing line looks just like the one you are searching for:
"Multivac, what do you yourself want more than anything else?". Multivac's answer is succinct and unequivocal: "I want to die."
You have some details that are different, but I think this is the story you had in mind.
This story would be A Report to an Academy by Franz Kafka.
It was published 1917 so would fit to the theme of taking place in the 19th century. The ape narrates his story in a scientific conference (hence the title). The part of the female monkey is also in there.
The only part that does not fit is, that the ape in this story gained his intelligence not by ...
This sounds like Firefox, a 1977 novel by Craig Thomas, made into a 1982 film starring Clint Eastwood. It's about a plot to steal a Soviet fighter jet that has an experimental thought-controlled interface.
A key point in choosing the American pilot for the mission is that the interface requires the pilot to think in Russian.
I figured it out - Clockwork Angels: The novel. The band was Rush.
A remarkable collaboration that is unprecedented in its scope and realization, this exquisitely wrought novel represents an artistic project between the bestselling science fiction author Kevin J. Anderson and the multiplatinum rock band Rush.
The newest album by Rush, Clockwork Angels, sets ...
Lords of the Starship, a 1967 novel by Mark S. Geston; set on far future Earth, not another planet.
Here is the beginning of the Wikipedia plot summary:
In the far future, on an Earth devastated by millennia of war, the Caroline Republic is hostile towards its neighbors although sharing their dire economic straits. Outside the declining remains of ...
This sounds very similar to THX 1138. One of George Lucas' early films from 1971.
Robert Duvall plays THX 1138, one of many humans with alphanumeric names living in underground cities run by automated systems and policed by droid officers to "keep the peace" after the surface of Earth has become uninhabitable.
In the end of the film, he steals a police ...