This question was directly addressed in the episode Birthright, Part 1:
Data... may I ask you a personal
Does your hair grow?
Data thinks a moment, taken aback by the question.
I can control the rate of my
Approximately 100 kg (= 220 lbs.) according to his 'mother'.
DATA: My -- childhood?
JULIANA: (laughing) That's what I called it. You were like a baby at first -- a hundred kilogram baby, but still...
This tallies with his official fact file on the StarTrek.com website, although this is likely a case of the tail (TNG: Inheritance) wagging ...
I wouldn't overanalyse this too much - it's just a case of bad writing. Furthermore, it was written in the early 90s, back before computers surpassed humans at chess, and people still thought that magical human intuition could beat brute force calculation every time.
Really, the ludicrous part is the idea that a 'classic attack', which has apparently been ...
They are playing three-dimensional chess, which may involve many more permutations for a small number of moves than ordinary 2D chess--even the best computer programs still can't typically beat professionals at the game of Go for example, because the number of permutations is much larger than in chess.
We also don't know if Data was programmed to do brute-...
Because Troi is not playing the way Data expects
From the transcript:
(a 3D chess game is in progress)
DATA: The characteristic response to the Kriskov Gambit is to counter with the el-Mitra Exchange, particularly since I have already taken both your rooks. By missing that opportunity, you have left your king vulnerable.
TROI: We'll see.
Because it's complex and not a good idea.
In "A Fistful of Datas" exactly that is tried.
It resulted in a mix-up of Datas thoughts and ideas with the computers database almost crippling the ship. Data in turn was "infected" with gun-slinger personality-traits from a program running on the holodeck.
LAFORGE: We think our interface ...
Data was doing exactly what he wanted to do.
It was his desire to be treated as a human. He wanted to be a Starfleet officer, serving with humans on a team. He did not want to be used as a tool.
There were those in Starfleet that wanted Data for other things, arguing, just as you are, that Data's potential was wasted as a simple Starfleet officer. (See ...
Data's lack of emotions is intentional
According to Lore, Dr. Soong deliberately left many features out of Data's programming in a bid to make him less threatening to humans.
LORE: It would be foolish to underestimate you, brother. Yes, I lied
when I said you were made first, but with good reason. Doctor Soong
made me perfect in his first attempt. But he ...
Data did grow a beard at one point (TNG: "The Schizoid Man") so I guess he needs to cut his hair.
Alternatively, he can chose when to grow the hair or the beard.
After some search I found that in episode "Birthright, Part I" (at 11:05), he says he can control the rate of his hair growth. So judging from that information, it probably means he may need to ...
Just remember these lines at the end of "All Good Things" (from the transcript here):
CRUSHER: You know, I was thinking about what the Captain told us about
the future. About how we all changed and drifted apart. Why would he
want to tell us what's to come?
LAFORGE: Sure goes against everything we've heard about not polluting the time line,
Why is Data so “unique”?
He's an android
Your other example is a ship's computer, and they are absolutely huge. This is what the core of Voyager's computer looks like (from Concerning Flight) compared to a normal person:
And the Enterprise's computer is shown to be a huge room where the walls are the computer cores in Evolutions:
This is made even more ...
At first glance, Data does seem to use his mouth (i.e. lips and tongue) to speak, which suggests that he's using some kind of larynx-like expiration-based voice generation system, otherwise, his lip/tongue configuration would not modify the sound much.
However, we also know that Soong deliberately made Data superficially emulate many humanoid functions, ...
Data was found inactive on the surface of a planet that had been stripped of life. While we don't have the exact text of the Federation's version of Salvage Law, it is known from an episode of Deep Space Nine that abandoned technology on a lifeless planet can be claimed by its finder. This is consistent with maritime salvage laws.
Data has artificial hair follicles. They can (presumably) take nutrients from what he consumes and convert those into a hair-like substance.
BASHIR: Does your hair grow?
DATA: I can control the rate of my follicle replenishment. However, I have not yet had a reason to modify the length of my hair.
Why do you ask?
TNG: Birthright, Part I
Data's hair definitely does not require trimming.
In the episode "Data's Day", Data visits the barber shop while Geordi is getting his own cut. He tries out the following joke with Geordi:
My hair does not require trimming you lunkhead!
Even though Data is not the best at jokes, this definitely implies that Data does not need the services of the ship ...
A normal holodeck actually does have physicality - or rather, it can. When a human (or other physical being) enters the Holodeck, it has to make some of the features 'solid'. From Memory Alpha's "Holodeck" entry:
A holodeck combines elements of transporter technology with that of replicators, by generating actual matter, as well as projecting force ...
In the 7th season episode "Inheritance" we find out that Data has a modesty subroutine. When Data was first constructed, he didn't feel the need to dress because he didn't "suffer from the elements", but some of the colonists were disturbed because he was anatomically correct.
Data would not willingly change into the clothes that Fajo wanted him to wear ...
TL; DR - Data can forget things when deletion is justified
This started as a summary, but got a bit long! Anyway, below I present evidence that Data can forget things through hardware manipulation, but this doesn't seem to be in the spirit of the question which implies Data forgetting something through software means. If we interpret the question in this ...
Because Data was of a lower rank!
Data was a Lieutenant Commander and Troi was promoted to Commander. Simply put, the ranking of Commander outranks Lieutenant Commander. Data was speaking technically that Troi outranked him - because Troi was a Commander, a higher rank, she could give him an order.
You are getting confused with the chain of command on ...
I doubt he would need to
He certainly seems to memorize everything. From S03E03:
Doctor Beverly Crusher: Could I have your names, please, just for the
Rishon Uxbridge: I'm Rishon Uxbridge, and this is my husband Kevin.
Lt. Commander Data: Botanists. Originally from the aquatic city New
Martim Vaz in Earth's Atlantic Ocean. Residents of the Rana IV ...
The screen direction in the original script indicates that Data was simply unable to read the label. Since the earlier direction is that the bottle is "very old" the implication would be that the label is decayed rather than that he doesn't speak the language. He smells it but is unfamiliar with the scent.
Data bends down and reaches under the bar... ...
It is unlikely that Dahj is a copy of Lal.
Lal, introduced as Data's daughter in TNG Season 3, Episode 16 ("The Offspring"), and Dahj Asha, introduced in Picard Season 1, Episode 1 ("Remembrance") are not likely to be the same individual, as I will argue below (but first with some background).
Lal was a positronic android fashioned by Data himself, much to ...
The events in All Good Things were the result of Q playing around with reality (or possibly just Picard) by moving things backwards, forwards, and sideways through time. The presence of Q and his usual shenanigans means that all bets are off as to what is real, what isn't real, what will be real, and what might become real.
The future events in All Good ...
Kivas Fajo suggests that Data will probably follow the rules of decency prescribed by Starfleet training:
FAJO: Oh, don't worry. The solvent won't harm your, your skin. But in seconds it will completely dissolve that uniform. Personally, I'd be delighted to see you go around naked. I assume you have no modesty. But, then, I guess that decency is the rule of ...
Not normally, but once he has the emotion chip it's uncertain.
From TNG 7x01, Descent, Part II:
Deanna Troi: Data, I can sense feelings in you.
Data: Yes. My brother has made that possible.
This means that despite their robotic nature, when Soong-type androids feel emotions it can be sensed by a half-Betazoid - the same as with regular biological ...
Let's first review the ruling from the script from TNG: 'The Measure of a Man':
PHILLIPA: It sits there looking at me, and I don't know what it is.
This case has dealt with metaphysics, with questions best left to
saints and philosophers. I'm neither competent nor qualified to answer
those. I've got to make a ruling, to try to speak to the future. Is
Patrick Stewart crystallized the pronunciation during the first script reading
I'm at the Star Trek 50th Anniversary Celebration in Las Vegas right now. Brent Spiner just revealed the answer to this on stage.
He mentioned that he himself would have pronounced it "Daa-ta", but Patrick Stewart read it as "Mr. Day-ta" in the first script reading (in front of ...
Data is extremely strong, consider this exchange from his trial in the episode "The Measure of a Man":
RIKER: Your Honour, I offer in evidence prosecution's exhibit A, a rod
of par-steel. Tensile strength, forty kilobars. Commander, would you
PICARD: Objection. There are many life forms possessed of mega
strength. These issues are ...