IN-Universe - As Worf said, it's something not discussed with non-Klingons.
OUT of Universe - To summarize, it's a very meta in-joke.
In the original series, they had a limited budget, and makeup options were few. So the Klingons got goatees and dusky skin, and belt buckles made of bubble wrap.
When they made Star Trek: The Motion Picture, Roddenberry ...
This apparent discrepancy was explained in Star Trek Enterprise. Long story short, Klingons experimented with genetic mutation to make themselves stronger, much like what was accomplished with Kahn and the Augments, but there were side effects that made the Klingons look hooman. These side effects were spread by a resulting virus, and after a ...
The pattern here doesn't seem that unusual for the cast of a successful television show not to ever get another high-profile role; there are far more TV actors than TV roles to go around. In fact, many of the people on your list followed a typical pattern for television stars, which is to get one big break-out role, followed by scattered guest appearances in ...
This is from Star Trek III:
Kirk: How much refit time till we can take [the Enterprise] out again?
Scotty: Eight weeks, sir. (as Kirk opens his mouth) But you don't have eight weeks, so I'll do it for ya in two.
Kirk: (considers) Mr. Scott. Have you always multiplied your repair estimates by a factor of four?
Scotty: Certainly, sir. How ...
Yes, they were.
The following excerpt from an article quotes Gene Roddenberry himself (via the authoritative book The Making of Star Trek) as saying:
[Feinberg] went out and bought a selection of very exotic-looking salt shakers. It was not until after he brought them in and showed them to me that I realized they were so beautifully shaped and futuristic ...
According to Memory Alpha;
Between the fourth and fifth seasons of Star Trek: The Next
Generation, Dorn played Colonel Worf in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered
Country. Although the relationship was not stated on screen, the
filmmakers' intention was that the Star Trek VI character was the
grandfather of the Next Generation character. (Star Trek ...
There were two versions of the Enterprise used in production.
The first one was used in the original pilot and for all of the original introduction shots.
December 29, in 1964: Craftsmen Richard Datin, Vern Sion, Mel Keys, and Volmer Jensen pose outside of Jensen's Los Angeles model shop with the just-completed original 11-foot version of the starship ...
This is the closest I can find, from TNG: Relics
Geordi La Forge: Look, Mr. Scott, I'd love to explain everything to you, but the Captain wants this spectrographic analysis done by
[La Forge goes back to work; Scotty follows slowly]
Scotty: Do you mind a little advice? Starfleet captains are like children. They want everything ...
According to the CGI article on Memory Alpha:
The very first CGI used was in Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan, where Lucasfilm Graphics Group, then a subsidiary of Industrial Light & Magic (ILM), was responsible for the "Project Genesis" demonstration sequence effect, the very first fully textured 3D CGI representation shown in the motion picture ...
There are direct references to their friendship in all of the forms you have described: statements by Kirk, statements by Spock, and statements by other crew members (McCoy in particular).
TOS "Journey to Babel"
Kirk calling Spock his friend:
KIRK: Spock is my best officer, and my friend.
AMANDA: I'm glad he has such a friend. It hasn't ...
We have Captain Chandra from TOS: Court Martial
And in the same vein as @N_Soong's answer, we do see two Starfleet Officers in the 23rd Century (courtesy of the episode DS9: Trials and Tribble-ations) sporting facial hair; Captain Sisko and Lt Cmdr Worf.
Obviously Worf is a bit of a push (he's in disguise) but Sisko meets Kirk and doesn't get ...
Shout-out to Balok
This most certainly harks back to the Balok puppet based on the fact that, for at least one whole season of The Original Series, a still of the Balok puppet appeared in the closing credits of every episode, despite not appearing in those episodes:
Given the similarity of Kif's appearance, it seems they inserted him at an analogous ...
There was "Let That Be Your Last Battlefield,” a remarkably unsubtle clunker of an episode, in spite of its worthy message.
SPOILER-NOT-SPOILER: The pair above is the mirror image of the other, i.e., their face is white or black on the respective opposite sides. This is an allegory for attaching significant differences in humanity to skin color on Earth. ...
James Doohan lost a finger on D-Day at Juno Beach. It's unclear as to where Montgomery Scott lost his... Here is a still shot of Scotty's right hand from the 1967 TOS "Cats Paw" episode and another from 1967's "The Trouble with Tribbles."
You can also see his right hand clearly at 19 mins 10 secs (Star Date 3498.9) in the 1966 "Fridays Child" TOS episode .
In "Where No Man Has Gone Before", the Enterprise picks up a ship recorder from the SS Valiant, a ship that had crossed the edge of galaxy 200 years earlier. The recorder indicated that the Valiant's captain had given an order to destroy the ship -- an order which, judging by the condition of the recorder, must have been carried out. (We don't know whether ...
The Command Tunics in TOS Were Actually Green
The costume designer for TOS was Bill Theiss:
William Ware Theiss - the designer of all the Starfleet uniforms and alien costumes seen in the 79 episodes of The Original Series. His elegant, daring and revealing wardrobe creations for the female guest stars on the series is one of the most memorable and ...
Let me give a bit of qualification for my source, which is me. I was born in late 1962, so I'm working with the memories of someone who was 7 when Star Trek ended its run. But I remember the news stories, since we often ate dinner in the den, while watching the evening news on TV. I remember seeing reporters wearing helmets and ducking down in trenches ...
Kirk calls McCoy "Sawbones" in TOS: A Piece of the Action.
I would hypothesise that "bones" is a contraction of "sawbones".
KIRK: Knock it off, Sawbones. I want to talk to this creep. Now listen, I'm getting tired of playing pattycake with you penny-ante
This is from "The Enemy Within", episode 5 of season 1 of Star Trek: The Original Series. The creature is never named in the episode, although the planet they found it on is stated to be Alpha 177, so Memory Alpha calls it the "Alfa 177 Canine".
Here's a screenshot from the same episode with Kirk holding the same creature:
Technically, your screenshot ...
There's no particular reason to believe Enterprise is non-canon. It was created by Rick Berman and Brannon Braga, who were at one time showrunners of The Next Generation, Deep Space Nine, and Voyager.
In-universe, we can connect Enterprise to almost every other definitely-canon Star Trek property:
TOS: The fourth-season Enterprise two-parter "In a Mirror, ...
Out-of-universe, this was due to the existence of more than one Enterprise model, and to footage being reused:
The second configuration, used in the second pilot (and throughout the
rest of the series, due to footage being reused) was similar to the
first version, with the addition of running lights, additional
markings, and a grille pattern on the ...
They spoke English.
Official first contact didn't happen until 2063 when they detected Zefram Cochrane's first warp flight, but the Vulcans had been watching humans prior to that.
It seems to be a rather closely-guarded secret, as at the end of ENT 2x02, Carbon Creek, T'Pol responded to their questions by saying that she just told them "a story" like they ...
First, let's establish that at least some male characters do have nipples in The Original Series :
Given what we see above, it's certainly not a general policy on TOS to have no nipples. With that out of the way, we can focus on the appearance of the Greek god Apollo.
Here he is in a larger, better screen capture:
There are nipples here; they are ...
The Franz Joseph uniform patterns from the Star Trek Technical Manual show that matching panties are a part of the normal female duty uniform. full tech manual
EDIT Some of the confusion about the fabrication method (from the comments below) is addressed here
Uhura's uniform and panties:
These uniforms were in use until the mid 2270's when the ...
During TOS, James Kirk holds the rank of Captain and therefore anyone who holds a higher rank is his superior. In later installments the rank of Admiral (and its various sub-ranks, such as Vice Admiral) was established the main rank above Captain, but on TOS the rank of Commodore was more often portrayed as being immediately superior to Captain. During TOS ...
This Wired article says that the tartan is one of the many Clan Scott designs.
It looks like pieces of the actual tartan were sold and autographed as memorabilia, with a piece recently being auctioned off in 2010, on this online auction site. The page includes a close up of the tartan that allows a better look at the pattern:
From this online registry of ...