Rollback by Robert J. Sawyer.
The novel focuses around Don Halifax and his wife of sixty years, Sarah, an astronomer who translated the first transmission sent from an extraterrestrial source to Earth 38 years prior to the opening of the story. Sarah, now 87, is tasked to decode the second message sent from the unknown alien race - if she can live long ...
Poul Anderson, "Epilogue"
His name was a set of radio pulses. Converted into equivalent sound
waves, it would have been an ugly squawk; so because he, like any
consciousness, was the center of his own coordinate system, let him be
He was out hunting that day. Energy reserves were low in the cave. The
other one who may ...
"Trouble with Treaties" Katherine MacLean & Tom Condit
The story has all the mentioned elements: hostile aliens, fake controls inside the fish tank, and the human crew screaming...
It's The Cat!
...when the ship's cat enters the room.
This sounds like an Outer Limits episode called "The Duplicate Man", first aired in 1964. (Clone created to kill an alien animal, doesn't know he's a clone at first, I think I even remember the window part).
It was based on "Good Night, Mister James", a novelette by Clifford Simak, published in 1951, available at the Internet Archive.
The Universe Between, a 1965 novel by Alan E. Nourse, which was also the answer to this old question. It was based on the short story "High Threshold" in Astounding Science Fiction, March 1951 and the novelette "The Universe Between" in Astounding Science Fiction, September 1951, which are available at the Internet Archive here and here.
That is Flight into Space edited by Don Wollheim and published in 1950 by Frederick Fell.
It's subtitled "Great Science-Fiction Stories of Interplanetary Travel" and just as you describe, has a story for the Sun, all nine planets, the Moon and the asteroids. The Sun creatures (in Sunward by Stanton A. Coblentz) are as you said, but the Plutonians (The Rape ...
Passage for Piano by Frank Herbert.
The main protagonist is Margaret Hatchell:
Had some cosmic crystal gazer suggested to Margaret Hatchell that she would try to smuggle a concert grand piano onto the colony spaceship, she would have been shocked. Here she was at home in her kitchen on a hot summer afternoon, worried about how to squeeze ounces into her ...
Overhead by Alexandra Erin, published in 2016 on medium.com here.
Politics, they say, is the art of the possible.
Logistics, then, must be the art of the convenient.
In the beginning, warehouses were organized in the order that things seemed to fit into them, and then in orders that made sense on the surface to human sensibilities. ...
That figure sounds like Matt Mason and this link confirms there was a tie-in book with moon worms:
The writing is iffy at best but wildly, and I mean WILDLY imaginative:
moon rabbits, moon worms, "nothing" beings--and all the great Major
Matt Mason vehicles.
It appears to have been a Whitman Big Little Book, and is listed on a collector's info page ...
That's Guy Gavriel Kay's Fionavar Tapestry
From Wikipedia (with my emphasis):
The Five [travellers]:
Drawn by magic from our world and thus strangers to Fionavar, each of them finds a new role and a new destiny during their adventures in Fionavar.
-Kevin Laine (Liadon) – Witty, bright, outgoing. Fair of hair and of spirit. The act of love has ...
This is Kung Fu Hustle.
In 1940s Shanghai, petty crooks Sing and Bone aspire to join the notorious Axe Gang, which rules the town with an iron fist under the leadership of cold-blooded Brother Sum. One day, the two visit the run down Pigsty Alley claiming to be Axe Gang members, and attempt to threaten the residents before being chased off by the slum's ...
Possible duplicate of this question:Headdress to control another person.Sounds very much like Frederik Pohl's Plague of Pythons. Human beings possessed by unknown forces at any time. The protagonist is branded with an H for hoaxer(not an L for Liar), because it happens at a place that is supposed safe from the possession. I don't remember a meat grinder ...
I'm about ready to bet a pig's butt to a C-note that it is
"The Language Clarifier" by Paul J. Nahin
... and aiming to find out. Unlike some answered stories, this one is being difficult to find and read again today to make sure. (Or add those demanded and coveted block-quotes from 30 years back in memory.)
This one was indeed in Omni.
This is most likely “And Then There Were (N-One)” by Sarah Pinsker
The viewpoint character is an insurance claims investigator
There is a murder
All characters involved in the murder (victims, investigator, suspects) are alternate timeline versions of the main character
The only difference is that in appeared in Uncanny, issue 15, March/April 2017. You can ...
This sounds like it's mostly based on "Moment of Inertia", a short story by Charles Sheffield. It was published as "Second Chronicle: Moment of Inertia" in The McAndrew Chronicles (1983), an anthology of stories with the same protagonists (viewpoint character Captain Jeanie Roker and her friend/eventual romantic interest Professor Arthur McAndrew). (It was ...
Your description perfectly matches One Station of the Way by Fritz Leiber, first published 1968. The world they are currently on is called "Finiswar" (at least in the German translation). The defenses the females have to prevent unwanted cross-impregnation (by consuming the unwelcome sperm) even allows lazy females to solely nourish this way.
Oh, and ...
Judas Unchained - Peter F. Hamilton
From the back of the paperback:
"To Mark Vernon, mechanic and general repairman extraordinare, it appears he's landed on his feet when he finds the perfect job on the most secure world in the Commonwealth."
Bearing in mind that your teacher showed it to you, I reckoned it might have been an educational programme, and googled the BBC's "Look and Read" series to try to find a match:
"Zzaap and the Word Master" was originally broadcast in 2001. Wikipedia's synopsis reads:
"Josie and Peter get transported into an educational computer game at their school. Once ...
The Outer Limits (1995 TV series)
"Double Helix" (episode 3x12; 1997) is about a professor in the 20th Century who activates a dormant part of his genetic code which leads him and a group of young adults to a spaceship that has been buried for 60 million years. The ship, though not self-repairing, is so durable that it has not taken damage in all its time ...
It might be Sales of a Deathman by Robert Bloch
It can be read on archive.org
What to do with the population problem? Killing people's so messy — unless they'll help!
We've got the posters up — everything from "Join the Marine Corpse" to
"Uncle Sam DOESN'T Want You!" And there's a big publicity campaign for
the development of ...
I'm not sure about the garage part (looking now), but this sounds like The Rowan (or another in that series) by Anne McCaffrey.
The Rowan (1990) is a science fiction novel by American writer Anne
McCaffrey, the first book in "The Tower and the Hive" series (also
known as "The Rowan" series). It is set in the universe of the
"Pegasus" trilogy, ...
I'm not sure at all, but it kinda reminds me the novel Slan by A. E. van Vogt.
Slans are evolved humans, named after their alleged creator, Samuel Lann. They have the psychic abilities to read minds and are super-intelligent. They possess near limitless stamina, "nerves of steel," and superior strength and speed. When Slans are ill or seriously injured, ...