This is probably Isaac Asimov's "Spell My Name with an "S"".
The story concerns Marshall Zebatinsky, a Polish-American nuclear physicist. He is concerned that his career has stalled, and in desperation consults a numerologist for advice on restarting it. The numerologist advises him to change the first letter of his name to "S": Sebatinsky.
Excalibur #58 (1992) fits the bill, your villain being Alchemy.
Trouble on both sides! With both the Crazy Gang and the trolls that kidnapped Alchemy on the loose, can even the combined strength of Excalibur and the X-Men come out on top?
As revealed in the previous issue, Alchemy was in with the trolls who used his mother as leverage ...
Many of those details match the 1968 musical Chitty Chitty Bang Bang. It involves a flying car, the father is an inventor who creates a new type of candy, and the children are captured by the evil Child Catcher and imprisoned.
This is actually a commonly occurring plot motif. However, the most explicit example of this would be "The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas" by Ursula LeGuin (PDF). The titular "ones" are those people who refuse to accept the suffering for one child as a necessity to preserve their utopia.
The only chronological element of the work is that ...
The Last Starfighter (1984)
Video game expert Alex Rogan finds himself transported to another planet after conquering The Last Starfighter video game only to find out it was just a test. He was recruited to join the team of best starfighters to defend their world from the attack.
I'm pretty sure this is actually from a book: Douglas Adams's third Hitch-Hiker's book, Life, The Universe and Everything.
Slartibartfast is explaining exactly why the Krikkiters are so traumatised by a spaceship crashing on their planet:
"No," said Slartibartfast, with a slight quickening of his step, "the people of Krikkit have never thought to ...
This is Disney's 1986 film, The Flight of the Navigator
On the night of July 4, 1978, in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, 12-year-old David Freeman walks through the woods to pick up his 8-year-old younger brother, Jeff, from a friend's house when he accidentally falls into a ravine and is knocked unconscious. When he comes to, he discovers that eight years have ...
Rainbow War (1985)
Rainbow War was featured in the Canadian Pacific Pavilion as part of Expo 86 in Vancouver, BC, Canada. It is available on DVD and Blu-ray from Pyramid Media.
A fan site has more information about the film, its cast, and its production history.
Three nations with strong ...
You're describing Logan's Run.
In the year 2274, the remnants of human civilization live in a sealed
city contained beneath a cluster of geodesic domes, a utopia run by a
computer that takes care of all aspects of their life, including
reproduction. The citizens live a hedonistic life but in order to
maintain the population levels everyone must ...
This is the 2001 film A.I. Artificial Intelligence.
The Blue Fairy (not Angel) is a recurrent theme in the movie.
Here is the part about being trapped underwater, from the linked Wikipedia article.
David tells Joe he saw the Blue Fairy underwater and wants to go down
to meet her. Joe is captured by the authorities using an
electromagnet. David and ...
This sounds like the short story "At the Core" by Larry Niven.
Four years after the events in the other short story "Neutron Star", spaceship pilot Beowulf Shaeffer is on Jinx, a planet orbiting Sirius B, when he is again contacted by the Puppeteers, this time by the Regional President of General Products on Jinx, who offers him a chance to guide a ...
I'd suggest that this is likely to be a somewhat poorly-recalled "The Forever War" by Joe Haldeman.
This does feature "time travel" although this is related to the difference in relative speeds for interplanetary travel due to time-dilation.
"Exactly. You've lost about nine years, though, to time dilation, while we maneuvered between collapsar jumps. In ...
The movie Event Horizon (1997) features a crew investigating the return of an experimental FTL ship. The original crew used an artificial black hole as part of their drive tech, and went crazy when they crossed the event horizon, cueing much clawing of eyes from sockets and eating of flesh.
Some of the original crew experiences are accessed & shown as ...
The story is definitely taken straight from Aldous Huxley's Brave New World.
A "chill pill" called soma
A society with a completely relaxed and open attitude toward sex and intimacy (in the book people refer to it as "enjoying" someone, as in "Have you enjoyed so-and-so lately?")
A method of teaching this behavior to children; the beginning ...
This is likely A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter M. Miller Jr.
After 20th century civilization was destroyed by a global nuclear war, known as the "Flame Deluge", there was a violent backlash against the culture of advanced knowledge and technology that had led to the development of nuclear weapons. During this backlash, called the "Simplification", ...
"The Accomplice" (April 1967), by Vernor Vinge
Originally published in Worlds of If Science Fiction, 1967.
Bob Royce, CEO of Royce Technology, Inc., and his security officer Arnold Su have discovered that one of their employees has embezzled 4 million dollars worth of computer time. The evidence points to Howard Prentice, a 90-...
That would be Korgoth of Barbaria, an animated pilot that was not picked up. It aired in the summer of 2006.
Korgoth is infected with a deadly parasite by Gog-Ma-Gogg and extorted to steal an item known as "The Golden Goblin of the Fourth Age" from the wizard Specules, who Gog believes to have recently died. He journeys with a group of ...
Rogue Moon (1960) by Algis Budrys.
Rogue Moon is largely about the discovery and investigation of a large alien artifact found on the surface of the Moon.
The object eventually kills its explorers in various ways—more specifically, investigators "die in their effort to penetrate an alien-built labyrinth where one wrong turn means ...
You don't specify if this is a book, film, or TV show but this corresponds very well with segment of Douglas Adams Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy stories involving the Golgafrincham ArK Fleet which is comprised of "the useless third of the population" When their planet is endangered this portion of the population is put on a spaceship and programmed to ...
This sounds to me like Ted Chiang's "What's expected of us", posted online here. It matches the description of effect preceding cause, and ends with the line:
So why did I do it?
Because I had no choice.
This sounds awfully similar to
The Truman Show
A guy dreaming about the one who will love her and he tries to figure out how she looks like.
Sylvia, the woman, had appeared in Truman's past and tried to reveal that he was actually in a TV Show. However, the production crew took her away and kicked her off the cast. This could be quite easily ...
This is a Twilight Zone episode: "A Little Peace and Quiet," from the 1980s series.
Penny is a very harried housewife with a dim-witted and hapless husband named Russell. They also have four children: Janet and Susan, who are always fighting; Gertie, who is very clumsy; and Russell Jr., who is always playing pranks. A typical morning ...
This is "A Statue for Father" (1959) by Isaac Asimov.
A theoretical physicist and his son work on the theory of time travel, and experiment with a method of reaching back into time and retrieving objects
More by serendipity than design, they manage to retrieve a nest of dinosaur eggs which in due course hatch.
They keep on working ...
This is Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland (1939). After attending a lecture on relativity the protagonist dreams that he enters a fantastical world where light moves at a mere fraction of the speed of sound.
When he opened his eyes again, he found himself sitting not on a
lecture room bench but on one of the benches installed by the city
for the convenience ...
Terry Brooks's Magic Kingdom for Sale -- Sold.
The novel begins with Ben Holiday, a trial lawyer from Chicago, lamenting the loss of his wife and unborn child in a car accident. He finds an advertisement in an upscale Christmas catalog claiming to offer a magical kingdom for one million dollars by a man named Mr. Meeks. Although skeptical, Ben pursues ...
I'm pretty sure this is the JG Ballard story "The Concentration City", originally published as "Build-Up".
"The Concentration City" is set in a "city" encompassing everything in known existence to its inhabitants. The districts comprise endless streets and buildings and seemingly infinitely high and low levels, or floors, with few trees ...
I would think you are looking for 'The City and the Stars' by Arthur C Clarke
The City and the Stars is a science fiction novel by British writer Arthur C. Clarke, published in 1956. This novel is a complete rewrite of his earlier Against the Fall of Night, which was Clarke's first novel, and was published in Startling Stories magazine ...
This sounds like The Mote in God's Eye by Niven and Pournelle.
The front cover features a quote from Robert Heinlein, "Possibly the finest science fiction novel I have ever read."
It's set in the CoDominium universe after the rise of the Second Empire of Man.
The moties don't arrive by Alderson jump point, they traveled in a solar sail-type craft that had ...
The story you’re thinking of is “Cascade Point”, a 1983 novella by Timothy Zahn. It appeared in a collection of his other stories, Cascade Point and Other Stories.
I can’t find any synopsis on-line, and I have hardcopy at home, not here, but what I recall matches your (few) details exactly. Additional details that may be helpful to ...