The Harry Potter wiki says:
The effects of a single dose last anywhere from ten minutes to twelve hours, depending on how well the potion has been brewed.
But it doesn't say anything about how much has to be drunk.
In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, several people drink from the same flask of Polyjuice Potion in order to transform into a decoy Harry. This would imply that the required dose is pretty small.
But in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, Madeye Moody (actually Barty Crouch Jr. in disguise) runs out of potion before he meant to (he ransacks his stash but all the bottles are empty). So apparently he drank quite a bit.
So, how much do you have to drink? Could Moody/Crouch have extended the effects of his potion if he took smaller sips?