A couple of years earlier than my previous answer (25 Janvier 1980) is "Professor Bakermann's Microbe" (original title "Le microbe du Professeur Bakermann, récit des temps futurs") by Charles Epheyre, first published in Revue Bleue (Revue politique et littéraire). (Also noted in the annual index.) Note that ISFDb records an incorrect date and source of first publication; it is correct in Stableford's anthology Scientific Romance: An International Anthology of Pioneering Science Fiction (2017), which is where I found an English translation. The full story is currently part of the Google books preview of Scientific Romance.
In the story the titular Professor Bakermann, living in the future world of 1935 where the microbes causing all known diseases have been isolated, dreams of creating a more powerful disease that can't be stopped. He breeds a "microbe" ("virus" is also used in the story) that is resistant to all known drugs and treatments, which naturally gets out of his lab when his wife violates its sanctity to search for incriminating letters. Hundreds of thousands of people die, including half his town, before he discovers it is susceptible to an electrical field. He becomes a hero and with ample rewards and, freed from his wife to do what he wishes, he sets out to breed an even more unstoppable disease.
In 1935 all diseases have been identified and classified:
Now, in 1935, the works of Pasteur had long been surpassed. Obedient to the impulse provided by the master, all the scientists of Europe, America, Australia, and even Africa, had set to work. Thanks to them, the most difficult problems had been clarified, the most obscure problems resolved; there was no longer any disease that did not have its microbe, labeled, classified and stored. The forms, the behavior, the habits and the tastes of all terrestrial, marine and airborne microbes were known, and microbial science had become the basis of medicine in all the universities.
But Bakermann has bred a new, much more dangerous microbe:
The means of rendering harmful microbes inoffensive were known, but that was only one aspect of the problem. Bakermann had found a means to render inoffensive microbes harmful.
When we say "harmful" we do not mean to imply mildly harmful, but terrible, overwhelming and irresistible. The microbes presently known only kill in a day, half a day at worst, and are also possessed of a fragile vitality. It does not take much to attenuate them or render them harmless. The problem, therefore, was to have a virus powerful enough to kill in an hour, at a dose of a hundredth or thousandth of a drop, in such a manner that no living creature could survive it. Above all - and this was the most delicate part - the terrible microbe must be very resistant, incapable of allowing itself to be weakened by intemperances of climate or the medications that artful humans were inventing incessantly.
We cannot enter into detail here regarding the famous scientist's scientific techniques. At any rate, thanks to improved culture media and certain electrical procedures that he was still keeping secret, Bakermann had profoundly transformed a vulgar microbe, the microbe that turns butter rancid - very widespread, alas! - by submitting it to a whole series of complicated cultures, and he had made it into an extremely nasty microbe.
The virus spreads extremely rapidly:
The town of Brunnwald was half-annihilated. Vienna and Munich already counted a few fatalities, and were probably infected at all points. Paris, London, Rome and St. Petersburg were invaded, without anyone being able to prevent the invasion, and the current evaluation was that the entire human race would be doomed within forty-eight hours. It was enough to make the greatest heroes shiver.
And with a huge fatality rate, even as Bakermann perfects the electrical cure:
The telegraph brought frightful news with every passing minute. At the very moment when, thanks to the positive electricity platform, the population of Brunnwald was entirely reassured, there had been 45,329 deaths in Berlin, 7,542 in Vienna, 4,673 in Munich, 54,376 deaths already in Paris, and 58,352 in London.
In brief, there had already been a total of 684,539 deaths in Europe.
And finally a victorious Bakermann dreams of an even more dangerous bacillus:
Nevertheless, he finds some consolation in trying to make a better mortifulgurans, more vigorous, more invincible than the first, whose irresistible effects no electricity, nor any medication, known or unknown, will be able to combat.