No, he won't get stronger as Hulk.
Well, Hulk's cousin, Jennifer Walters, had to take some of Hulk's blood which made her the She-Hulk we know today, and when she trained, she did get stronger as She-Hulk. But it won't work on Hulk.
It's simply because She-Hulks strength doesn't increase with rage - it stays the same, always increasing by probably about x1000 when she's She-Hulk compared to human form. But with Hulk, his strength increases with rage, and Bruce's workout will not increase this strength, as the Hulk was made the Hulk not by drinking blood from someone who's Hulk, but by radiation.