The Turning Place: Stories of a Future Past, a 1976 collection by Jean E. Karl in her Clordian Sweep series.
Review by Charles N. Brown in Isaac Asimov's Science Fiction Magazine, Spring 1977, available at the Internet Archive:
The biggest joy in reviewing books is to come across something very good but obscure. My 'discovery' this year is Jean Karl's The Turning Place, subtitled Stories of a Future Past. Although packaged as a juvenile collection of science fiction stories, it's actually a novel, since each story builds upon the one before it. In the first story, an alien race destroys civilization and nearly wipes out humanity. Each successive story, set several generations later, shows how people have changed, adapted, and set up a new social order which is better than the old one. Some stories are straight juveniles, others are not — especially the later, complex ones. The quality of the writing, as with most juveniles, is quite good.
From a comment by DavidW:
Google Books has a preview of the first story: a dome appears in the desert, the protagonist and a few others are trapped inside, and then the dome expands out over the countryside, leaving nothing behind for them to find.