It's a plot point in Deep Space Nine that Nog, as a non-Federation citizen, requires a waiver to attend Starfleet Academy. That leads to the question of how one can become a Federation citizen if one was not born with citizenship or granted it as a result of one's homeworld joining the Federation.
More specifically, is the process analogous to US or Canadian citizenship, in which one is granted citizenship in the entire federation at once and then may choose a member state to live in (e.g. one can naturalize as a US citizen according to the standardized nationwide process and then choose to become a Texan or a New Yorker at one's pleasure) or is it more analogous to European Union citizenship, in which being naturalized in a member state grants access to a package of rights and responsibilities that also apply to citizens of other member states?
For example, suppose I was a Romulan that wanted to become a Federation citizen and live on Andoria. Would the process involve applying to the central Federation government for a certificate of citizenship and then registering it at the local government office on Andoria in the district I wished to live in, or would I be expected to apply directly to the Andorian government for naturalization as an Andorian citizen, and Federation citizen rights like attending Starfleet Academy without a waiver would then be tied to my Andorian citizenship?