In TNG: “The Chase” (S06E20) Picard ordered Worf to disable the Ydirian destroyer attacking Galen's shuttle but the whole ship exploded.
Worf wouldn't disobey the captain like that, so what went wrong?
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This is covered in the script.
RIKER : Worf?
WORF : I don't understand, Commander. The phaser blast was not powerful enough to destroy the ship.
DATA : The Yridian vessel was overloading its power generators. That, combined with the phaser blast, caused it to explode.
It seems that the Yridians had been running their "power generators" at above their rated capacity, presumably in an attempt to catch up with the shuttle's top speed. Data only determines this after their shields come down, in the moment before the ship explodes.