Following up on Why are quarters on the Enterprise-D so spacious?,
What about officers below Lieutenant who have families?
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As far as I know, "The Lower Decks" is one of the few times we see junior officer quarters of any kind, and have it confirmed that, at least on a Galaxy Class ship, they have to share quarters. To my knowledge, we never see a junior officer with a family, and so there cannot be a canonical answer to the question.
That said, I can think of two equally plausible alternatives:
The former makes sense in the context of the originally intended "mission" for the Enterprise-D, which was long-range exploration with only rare contact with home. This conception of the Enterprise was almost-but-not-quite a generation ship and was one of the major reasons for families being included at all.
The latter makes more sense in the context of the way the series actually played out, where the Enterprise-D was in regular touch with Star Fleet and often put in to Federation worlds and bases, meaning that junior officers could visit their families on leave, and also eventually get promoted and bring their families on-board later.