Are there further mentions of this Constitution in the books, perhaps with other Guarantees?
In canon, the 7th Guarantee is mentioned in ST:TNG S04E21 that I am rewatching now, paraphrased in Memory Alpha:
the Seventh Guarantee of the Constitution of the United Federation of Planets protects all Federation citizens from being compelled to give self-incriminating testimony in legal procedings. (TNG: "The Drumhead")
and the 12th Guarantee (which seems possibly convoluted) from ST:Voyager S07E20:
Section seven gamma of the Twelfth Guarantee of the Constitution of the United Federation of Planets defined an artist as a "person who creates an original artistic work."